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Animal and Plant Cell Parts/Functions

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Cell Membrane
Pores of the membrane allow materials in and out of the cell; a double layer of lipid bilayer (phospholipids); heads of bilayer are hydrophilic (water loving); tails of bilayer are hydrophobic (water fearing)
Cytoplasm
Liquid that carries organelles; the cytosol and the organelles in the cytosol
Vacuole
Membrane bound sac; holds nutrients, water, and waste; plant cells have one large vacuole; animal cells have many small vacuoles; help increase cell size during growth
Mitochondrion (plural mitochondria)
Power center of the cell; membrane bound organelles; have a double membrane
Golgi Complex
Package macromolecules for transport to other places in cell; has one membrane; membrane bound structure
Lysosome
Digest food particles, waste, and foreign invaders; common in animal cells; important in intracellular digestion
Nucleus
Power center of the cell; enclosed in double membrane; communicates with cytosol via nuclear pores
Nuclear Membrane
Double membrane that surrounds nucleus
Chromosomes (DNA, Genes)
DNA determines the unique characteristics of a cell; DNA is in the nucleus
Nucleolus
produces ribosomes; nucleolus is the prominent structure in the nucleus
Cytosol
where most of cellular metabolism occurs; mostly water; full of proteins that control cell metabolism; all other cell organelles reside in cytosol
Centrosome
area in cell where microtubles are produced
Centriole
Only animal cells have centrioles; ring of nine groups of fused microtubles; three microtubles in each group; part of the cytoskeleton
Peroxisome
protect the cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide
Secretory Vesicle
cell secretions are packaged here; then secretory vesicles are transported to cell surface for release
Cell Wall
Protects cell and gives them their shape; only plant cells have cell walls; made up of polysaccharides
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
plays different functions depending on specific cell type including: lipid and steroid hormone synthesis, breakdown of lipid-soluble toxins in liver cell, and control of calcium release in muscle cell contraction
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
has ribosomes on its surface; proteins synthesized on the ribosomes collect in the ER for transport throughout the cell
Ribosomes
Assist in the development of amino acids; packets of RNA and proteins that play crucial role in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; site of protein synthesis; has two parts:large subunit, and small subunit
Cytoskeleton
helps maintain cell shape; internal movement of cell organelles, cell locomotion, and muscle fiber contraction couldn't happen without cytoskeleton; organized network of microtubles, actin filaments, and intermediate fibers
Chloroplast
Only plant cells have chloroplasts; where chlorophyll are found; make food; have double outer membrane
Chlorophyll
Makes plants green
Organelles
Tiny organs;