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Chapter 7: The Progressive Era
Terms in this set (35)
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
A political movement within both major parties in the early 20th century. Progressives believed that the power of the government should be used to restrain the growing power of larger corporations, as well as to provide services for its citizens.
Social Gospel Movement
A 19th century reform movement based on the belief that Christians have a responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom., the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
1868-1963 Civil rights leader and author. Called for full equality of African-Americans, which included social, civil, political, and economic equality. Opposed Booker T. Washington's "gradual approach" to equality. Through higher education, DuBois wanted to develop leaders from the most able 10% of African-Americans ("The Talented Tenth") Co-founded the Niagara Movement, which became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, "Square Deal," passed the Meat Inspection Act.
Theodore Roosevelt's campaign slogan, expressed his beleif that the needs of workers, buisness, and consumers should be balanced and called for limiting power of trusts, promoting public health and safety and improving working conditions
William H. Taft
"trustbuster" (busted twice as many as Roosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, caused Republican split)
Democrat who won the presidency in 1913. His "New Freedom" was established to tame big business, encourage greater competition, and eliminating special privileges. His legislative achievements include: Underwood Tariff, Graduated Income Tax, The Federal Reserve Act and the Antitrust legislation (Clayton Antitrust Act and the Federal Trade Commission).
Federal Reserve Act
1913 law that placed national banks under the control of a Federal Reserve Board, which runs regional banks that hold the reserve funds from commercial banks, sets interest rates, and supervises commercial banks
National Park Service
Founded in 1916,its purpose was to establish federal preservation programs for historic sites.
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869.
This occurred during the late 1800s as farmers banded together to have a louder voice during Industrial Development in the US.
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies.
(1883): Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based. Created the Civil Service Commission.
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
1913- allowed for the voters in each state to elect their US senators directly. Previously, senators had been chosen by state legislatures. Progressive reform to expand democracy.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Federal Reserve System
A national banking system, established in 1913, that controls the U.S. money supply and the availability of credit in the country.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
A law that help prevent the formation of monopolies. It covers some practices and companies that the Sherman Anti-trust Act did not cover. Said unions were not monopolies.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
(1890) forbade the establishment of a monopoly.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
African American who led the fight against lynching.
Allows voters to petition to propose a law & then submit it for a vote.
A procedure for submitting to popular vote a law or proposed amendments to a state constitution.
A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends (patronage).
Meat inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Child Labor Act
Prohibited the sale of goods created by child labor.
Bull Moose Party
A name given to the Progressive Party, formed to support Theodore Roosevelt's candidacy for the presidency in 1912.
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