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Ch 5, Pt. 3, Intro to Advertising
Terms in this set (100)
The innoation adoption model is especially important to companies who
Are using IMC tools to introduce new products to the market.
Market recognizers that are certain types of consumers whoa re of particular interests to consumers because of
Their interest in new products and their ability to influence others.
Initial group of people who play a critical role in determining the success or failure of a new product with many consumers listening to them.
The group of consumers who are the first to use various new digital products and services.
Early Digital Adopters is a group of consumers that is not only more likely to buy new products
They are also respected for their opinions and thus can influence the purchase decision of others who look to them for advice
Early Adopters are two to five times more likely to
Spread the word about new products and services than the average consumer.
Information Processing Model
Assumes the receiver in a persuasive communication situation like advertising is an information processor or problem solver.
The stages in the information processing model are similar to the hierarchy of effects sequence
Attention and comprehension are similar to awareness and knowledge and yielding is synonymous with liking.
Retention is a stage found in the
Information processing model that is not found in other models.
Retention, according to the information processing model
The receiver's ability to retain that portion of the comprehended information that he or she accepts as valid or relevant.
The retention stage of the information processing model is important since most
Promotional campaigns are designed not to motivate consumers to take immediate action but rather to provide information they will use later when making a purchase decision.
Each stage of the response hierarchy is a dependent variable or outcome that must
Be attained and may serve as n objctive of the communication process.
Each stage can be measured in the information processing model , providing the advertiser
with feedback regarding the effectiveness of various stages designed to move the consumer to purchase.
The information processing model may be an effective framework for
Planning and evaluating the effects of the promotional campaign.
The hierarchy models of communication responses are useful to promotional planners because the delineate the series
Of steps potential purchases must be taken through to move them from unawareness of a product service to readiness to purchase it.
The hierarchy models of communication responses are useful to promotional planners because potential buyers
May be at different stages in the hierarchy, so the advertiser will face different sets of communication problems.
The hierarchy models of communication responses are useful to promotional planners as intermediate measures of
Communication effectiveness as the marketer needs to know where audience members are in the response hierarchy.
For a target segment with low awareness of an advertiser's brand, the communication task involves increasing awareness level of the brand
This can be done by increasing the number of ads, or a product sampling program used.
For a target segment with high awareness of the brand but low preference and liking the advertiser must determine
The reason for the ambivalent or negative feeling and then attempt to address the problem in future advertising.
represents what the receiver knows or perceives about the particular product or brand
The cognitive stage includes
Awareness that the brand exists, and knowledge, information, or comprehension about its attributes, characteristics or benefits.
Receiver's feelings or affect level (like or dislike) for the particular brand
The affect stage includes stronger levels of affect such as
Desire, preference, and convition.
Conative or behavioral stage
refers to the consumer's action toward the brand: trial, purchase, adoption, or rejection
All four traditional response hierarchy models assume
A similar ordering of cognitive development precedes, affective reactions, which precede behavior.
Three alternative orderings to the three stages based on perceived product involvement
Standard Learning, Dissonance/Attribution, Low-involvement models
In many purchase situations, the consumer will go through the response process in the
Sequence depicted by the traditional communication models.
Standard Learning Model
When the consumer goes through the response Process of learn-feel-do sequence.
Standard Learning Model
In the standard learning model, learning and knowledge acquired or learned about the various brands
Are the basis for developing affect or feelings, that guide what the consumer will do.
In the standard learning hierarchy, the consumer is viewed as
An active participant in the communication process who gathers information through active learning.
The standard learning hierarchy is likely when the consumer is
Highly involved in the purchase process and there is much differentiation among competeing brands.
High-involvement purchase decisions include those for
Industrial products and services and consumer durables like personal computers, printers, cameras, appliances and automobiles where a standard learning hierarchy response is likely.
Ads for products and services that are high involvement are often
Detailed and provide customers with information that can be used to evaluate brands and help them make a purchase decision.
High involvement ads may focus on
Specific product attribute or feature that is important to consumers in market segment they are targeting.
A type of response hierarchy where consumers first behave, then develop attitudes or feelings as a result of that behavior, and then learn or process information that supports the attitude and behavior.
The dissonance/attribution model occurs in situatios where consumers must choose between two alternatives
That are similar in quality but are complex and may have hidden or unknown attributes.
The consumer in the dissonance/attribution model may purchase the product on the basis of
A recommendation by some nonmedia source and then attempt to support the decision by developing a positive attitude toward the brand and perhaps even developing negative feelings toward the rejected alternatives.
Developing negative feelings toward the rejected alternative reduces
The feeling of post purchase dissonance.
anxiety the consumer may experience resulting from doubt over the purchase
Dissonance reduction involves selective learning, whereby
The consumer seeks information that supports the choice made and avoids information that would raise doubts about the decision.
According to the dissonance/distribution model attitudes develop
After purchase as does learning from the mass media.
In dissonance/attribution model situations, the main effect of the media is not promotion of original choice behavior and attitude change
But rather the reduction of dissonance by reinforcing the wisdom of the purchase or providing supportive information.
As with the standard learning model, the response hierarchy is likely to occur
When the consumer is involved in the purchase situation; it's particularly relevant for postpurchase situations.
A consumer may purchase a brand recommendation by a friend and then
Develop a favorable attitude toward the company and pay close attention to its ads to reduce dissonance in the dissonance/attribution model.
Some marketers resist the dissonance/attribution view of the response hierarchy because because
They can't accept the notion that the mass media have no effect on the consumer's initial purchase decision.
The dissonance/attribution view doesn't claim the mass media have no effects
Just that their major impact occurs after the purchase has been made.
Marketing communication planners must be aware of the need for advertising and promotion efforts not just to encourage brand selection but to
Reinforce choices and ensure that a purchase pattern will continue.
low involvement hierarchy
A response hierarchy whereby a message recipient is viewed as passing from cognition to behavior to attitude change.
Low Involvement Hierarchy Model
The low involvement hierarchy model of learn-do-feel is thought
To characterize situations of low consumer involvement in the purchase process.
Low-involvement hierarchy tends to occur when
Involvement in the purchase decision is low, there are minimal differences among brand alternatives, and mass media advertising is important.
In low-involvement situations, the consumer does not compare
The message with previously acquired beleifs, needs, or past experiences.
In low-involvement situations, the commercial results in subtle changes in
The consumer's knowledge structure, particularly with repeated exposure.
The change in the consumer's knowledge does not result in attitude change for low-involvement hierarchy
But is related to learning something about the advertised brand, such as a brand name, ad theme, or slogan.
When the consumer enters a purchase situation, the information may be sufficient trigger a purchase in low-involvement hierarchy and the consumer will
Then form an attitude toward the purchased brand as a result of experience with it.
Low-Involvement response sequence
Message exposure under low involvement-shift in cognitive structure-purchase-positive or negative experience-attitude formation
Message exposure under low involvement-shift in cognitive structure-purchase-positive or negative experience-attitude formation
Low-Involvement response sequence (term/def. flipped)
In the low-involvement hierarchy, the consumer engages in passive learning and
Random information catching rather than active information seeking.
In low-involvement hierarchy, the advertiser must recognize that a
Passive, uninterested consumer may focus more on nonmessage elements such as music, characters, symbols, and slogans or jingles than actual message content.
In low-involvement hierarchy, the advertiser might capitalize on the uninterested consumer situation by
Developing a catchy jingle that is stored in the consumer's mind without any active cognition processing and becomes salient when he or she enters he actual purchase situation.
Advertisers of low-involvement products often repeat
Simple product claims such as a key copy point or distinctive product benefit.
Under low-involvement conditions, repetition of simple product claims increased
consumers' memory of and belief in those claims.
advertisers of low-involvement products might find it more profitable to pursue a heavy repition strategy than to
Reach larger audiences with lengthy, more detailed messages
Not all response sequences and behaviors are explained
Adequately by either the traditional or alternative response hierarchies.
Advertising is just one source of information consumers use in
Learning about products, forming attitudes, and/or making purchase decisions.
Consumers are likely to integrate information from advertising and other forms of marketing communication as well as
Direct experience with forming judgments about a brand.
Advertising can lessen the negative effects of
An unfavorable trial experience on brand evaluations when the ad is processed before the trial.
When a negative trial experience precedes exposure to an ad
Cognitive evaluations of the ad are more negative.
Advertising can affect consumers' objective sensory interpretation of
Their experiences with a brand and what they remember about it.
Sometimes consumers make a purchase decision on the basis of general awareness resulting from
Repetitive exposure to advertising and attitude development occurs after the purchase if at all.
The role of advertising and other forms of promotions may be to induce trial so consumers
Can develop brand preferences primarily on the basis of their direct experience with the product.
It is important, from a promotional planning perspective, that marketers examine the communication situation for their product or service and determine
Which type of response process is most likely to occur.
Marketers should analyze involvement levels and product/service differentiation as well as consumers use of
Various information sources and the level of experience with the product or service.
Once the manager has determined which response sequence is most likely to oeprate, the integrated marketing communications program can be
Designed to influence the response process in favor of the company's product or service.
Several planning models have been developed that consider involvement levels as well as
Other factors including response process and motives that underlie the attitude formation and subsequent brand choice.
Models about involvement levels and response process and motives can be of value to marketers as they develop IMC strategies because they recognize that
Advertising and other promotional tools work differently depending on the type of product involved and the decision process sequence that consumers are likely to follow.
In the hierarchal response models attention centers on identifiable relationships between
Specific controllable variables (like source and message) an outcome or response variables (such as attention, comprehension, attitudes, and purchase intentions)
The hierarchal response models have been criticized for reasons like
Its black-box nature, since it can't explain what causes its reactions.
Thoughts that occur to a message recipient while reading, viewing, and/or hearing a communication.
The thoughts in the cognitive responses are generally measured by having consumers
Write down or verbally report their reactions to a message.
The assumption with the thoughts in cognitive responses reflects the recipients
Cognitive processes or reactions and help shape ultimate acceptance or rejection of the message.
Cognitive Response focus has been to determine
the types of responses evoked by an advertising message and how the responses relate to attitudes toward the ad, brand attitudes, and purchase intentions.
Three Basic Categories of Cognitive Responses
Product/Message, Source-Oriented, and Ad Execution thoughts.
the first category of thoughts in cognitive responses comprises those
Directed at the product or service and/or the claims being made in the communication.
When it comes to product/message thoughts much attention has focused on two particular types of responses
Counterarguments and support arguments.
thoughts the recipient has that are opposed to the position taken in the message
thoughts that affirm the claims made in the message
The likelihood of counterarguing is greater when
The message makes claims that oppose the receiver's beliefs.
Counterarguments relate negatively to message acceptance
The more the receiver counterargues, the less likely he or she is to accept the position advocated in the message.
Support arguments relate positive to message acceptance
Thus the marketer should develop ads or other promotional messages that minimize counterarguing and encourage support arguments.
Negative thoughts about the spokesperson or organization making the claims
Sorce derogation thoughts generally lead to a
Reduction in message acceptance.
If consumers find a particular spokesperson annoying or untrustworthy
they are less likely to accept what this source has to say.
Receivers who react favorable to the source generate favorable thoughts.
Most advertisers attempt to hire spokespeople their target audience
Likes to carry the source bolster effect over to the message.
Ad Execution Thoughts
Thoughts about the ad itself and affect attitude toward the ad
Attitude Toward the Ad
Receivers' feelings of favorability or unfavorability toward an ad.
Many of the thoughts receivers have when reading or viewing an ad do not concern the product and/or message claim
Rather they are effective reactions representing the consumer's feelings toward the ad.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch 4, Pt. 4, intro to advertising
Ch 4/5, Pt. 5/1, Intro to Advertising
Ch 5, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
Ch 5/6, Pt. 4/1, Intro to Advertising
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ch. 7/?, Pt. 4/1, Intro to Advertising (incomplete)
Ch. 7, Pt. 3, Intro to Advertising
Ch. 7, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
Ch 14/7, Pt. 2/1, Intro to Advertising