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Ch 5/6, Pt. 4/1, Intro to Advertising
Terms in this set (100)
The thoughts and feelings toward an ad may include
Reactions to ad execution factors such as the creativity of the ad, the quality of the visual efects, colors, and voice tones.
ad execution-related thoughts are important because of
Their effect on attitudes toward the advertisement as well as the brand.
Advertisers are interested in consumers' reaction of the ad because
They know that affective reactions are an important determinant of advertising effectiveness, since these reactions may be transferred to the brand itself or directly influence purchase intentions.
People who enjoy a commercial are twice as likely as those who are neutral toward it
To be convinced that the brand is the best.
Consumer's feelings about the ad may be just important as their attitudes toward the brand (if not more so)
In determining an ad's effectiveness.
The importance of affective reactions and feeling generated by the ad depends on several factors
Including the nature of the ad and the type of processing engaged in by the receiver.
Advertisers use emotional appeals designed to evoke positive feelings and
affective reactions as the basis of their creative strategy.
The success of advertisers using emotional appeals depends in part on
The consumers' involvement with the brand and their likelihood of attending to and processing the message.
Marketers create favorable attitudes toward their ads in part by using humor which can
Put consumers in a positive mood and increase their liking of both the ad and the brand.
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
Differences in the ways consumers process and respond to persuasive messages
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) explains the process by which
Persuasive communications lead to persuastion by influencing attitudes.
The attitude formation or change process depends on the amount and nature of
Elaboration, or processing, of relevant information that occurs in response to a persuasive message.
High elaboration means the receiver engages in careful consideration, thinking, and evaluation of
The information or arguments contained in the message.
Low elaboration occurs when the recevier
Does not engage in active information processing or thinking but rather makes inferences about the position being advocated in the message on the basis of simple positive or negative cues..
The ELM shows that elaboration likelihood is a function of 2 elemnts
Motivation and ability to process the message.
Motivation to process the message depends on factors like
Involvement, personal relevance, and individuals' needs and arousal levels.
Ability depends on the individual's
Knowledge, intellectual capacity, and opportunity to process the message.
An individual viewing a humorous commercial or one containing an attractive model
May be distracted from processing the information about the product.
2 routes to persuasion or attitude change according to ELM
Central Route to Persuasion, Peripheral Route to Persuasion
Central Route to Persuasion
the receiver is viewed as a very active, involved participant in the communication process whose ability and motivation to attend, comprehend, and evaluate messages are high
When central processing of an advertising message occurs, the consumer
Pays close attention to message content and scrutinizes the message arguments.
A high level of cognitive response activity of processing occurs under the central route to persuasion and the ad's
Ability to persuade the receiver depends primarily on the receiver's evaluation of the quality of the arguments presented.
Predominantly favorable responses under the central route to persuasion
Lead to favorable changes in cognitive structure, which lead to positive attitude change, or persuasion.
If the cognitive processing is predominately unfavorable and results in counterarguments and/or source derogations under the central route to persuasion
The changes in cognitive structure are unfavorable and boomerang or result in negative attitude chagne.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
the receiver is viewed as lacking the motivation or ability to process information and is not likely to engage in detailed cognitive processing
Under the peripheral route to persuasion, rather than evaluating the information presented in the message, the receiver relies on
Peripheral cues that may be incidental to the main arguments.
Under the peripheral route to persuasion, the receiver's reaction to the message
Depends on how he or she evaluates peripheral cues.
Under the peripheral route of persuasion the consumer may use several types of peripheral cues or
Cognitive shortcuts rather than carefully evaluating the message arguments presented in an advertisement.
Favorable attitudes may be formed in the peripheral route of persuasion if the endorser in the ad
Is viewed as an expert or is attractive and/or likable or if the consumer likes certain executional aspects of the ad such as the way it was made, the music or the imagery.
The cues in the peripheral route of persuasion might help consumers form
A positive attitude toward the the brand even if they do not process the message portion of the ad.
Ads that advocate extreme positions, use endorsers who are not well liked or have credibility problems, or are not executed well may be rejected
Without any consideration of their information or message argument with the peripheral route of persuasion.
Favorable attitudes must be maintained by
Continual exposure to the peripheral cues, such as through repetitive advertising.
If the involvement level of consumers in the target audience is high
An or sales presentation should contain strong arguments that are difficult for the message recipient to refute or counterargue.
If the involvement level of the target audience is low
Peripheral cues may be more important than detailed message arguments.
When involvement is low, a celebrity endorser has
A significant effect on attitudes.
When the receiver's involvement was high, the use of a celebrity
Has no effect on brand attitudes; the quality of the argument used in the ad is more important.
A celebrity may serve as a peripheral cue in a low-involvement situation which allows
A receiver to develop favorable attitudes based on feelings toward the source rather than engaging in extensive processing of the message.
A highly involved consumer engages in more detailed central processing of the message content
And the quality of the message becomes more important than the identity of the endorser.
The elaboration likelihood model suggests that the more effective type of message depends on
The route to persuasion the consumer follows.
Marketers of low-involvement products often rely on
Creative tactics that emphasize peripheral cues and use repetitive advertising to create and maintain favorable attitudes toward the brand.
Although effects hierarchies have been employed for nearly 100 years, there is little
Support for the concept of a hierarchy of effects in the sense of temporal sequence.
Three critical intermediate effects between advertising and purchase
Cognition, Affect, and Experience
The thinking dimension of a person's response
The feeling dimension of a person's response
A feedback dimension based on the outcomes of product purchasing and usage
Individual responses to advertising are mediated or filters by factors such as
Motivation and ability to process response to advertising.
The effects of advertising should be evaluated on cognition, affect, and experience, with some
Intermediate variables being more important than others depending on factors like product category, stage of the product lifestyle, target audience, competition, and impact of other marketing-mix components.
According to some, advertisers need to move away from explicit and implicit reliance on hierarchical models of advertising effects and develop
Models that place affect and experience at the center of the advertising process.
Marketers should focus on cognition, affect and experience as
Critical variables that advertising may affect.
Marketers should not assume a particular sequence of responses, but rather
Engage in research and analysis to better understand how advertising and other forms of promotion may affect intermedia variables in various product/market situations.
Hierarchal models provide insight into whether advertising strategies need to
Focus on impacting cognition, affect, and/or behavior based on audience or segmentation experiences and they provide valuable planning, training, and conceptual frameworks.
Those responsible for planning the IMC program need to learn as much as possible about
Their target audience and how it may respond to advertising, along with other forms of marketing communications.
Consumers are continually immersed in brand-sponsored communications that include
Public relations, a broad range of sales promotion activities, social media, direct marketing, event sponsorships, movie and TV show product placements, and other forms of marketing communication.
Hierarchy models must move beyond just explaining the effects of advertising and consider
How and with what effects, consumers synthesize information from all the various integrated marketing communication activities for a brand.
Information from the numerous forms of social media and other digital sources is adding to
The number of factors that influence the consumer response process and decision making.
Models are important as they
Present the basic elements of communication and provide insight into how consumers process and respond to advertising and other IMC tools.
Models are vital to understanding the communication process as it provides a foundation
For studying and evaluating integrated marketing communications.
Understanding the communication process helps marketers make better decisions in
Planning, implementing, and evaluating their marketing communication programs.
Controllable Elements in the Communication Model
Source, Message and Channel Factors
Helps marketers see how each coltollable element interacts with the consumer's presonse process.
Persuasion Matrix 2 Variables
Independent Variables, and Dependent Variables
The contollable components of the communication variables.
The steps a receiver goes through in being persuaded.
Marketers can chose the person or source hwho
Delivers the message, the type of message appeal used, and the channel or medium.
Marketers cannot control the receiver, but they can
Select the target audience.
The destination variable is included in the persuasion matrix because
The initial message recipient may pass on information to others through word of mouth.
Promotional planners need to know how decisions about each independent variable influences the stages of the response hierarchy so
They don't enhance one stage at the expense of the other.
Many ads capture attention but
Result in poor recall of the brand name or message
Personal sources may be the most influential factor
In a purchase decision.
Word-of-mouth information transmitted from one individual to another
Is often perceived as more reliable and trustworthy than that received through more formal marketing channels such as advertising.
Marketers are using buzz and stealth marketing methods to generate
Favorable word-of-mouth discussions and recommendations for their products and services.
The person involved in communicating a marketing message either directly or indirectly
A spokespoerson who delivers a message and/or endorses a product or services.
Doesn't actually deliver a message but draws attention to and/or enhances the appearance of the ad.
Some ads use neither direct not
An indirect source with the source being the organization with the message to communicate.
Marketers try to select individuals whose traits will maximize message influence. The source may be
Knowledgeable, popular, and/or physically attractive; typify the target audience; or have the power to reward or punish the receive in some way.
Three Basic Categories of Source Attributes
Credibility, Attractiveness, and Power
The extent to which the recipient sees the source as having relevant knowledge, skill or experience and trusts the source to give unbiased, objective information.
2 important dimensions to credibility
Expertise and trustworthiness
The source has to be trustworthy, honest, ethical, and believable. The influence of a knowledgeable source
Will be lessened if audience members think he or she is biased or has underlying personal motives for advocating a position.
Underlying personal motives for advocating a position may include
Being paid to endorse a product.
Expert and/or trustworthy sources are more persuasive than sources
Who are less expert or trustworthy
Information from a credible source influences
Beliefs, opinions, attitudes, and/or behavior through internalization.
Occurs when the receiver adopts the opinion of the credible communicator since he or she believes information from the source is accurate.
Once the receiver internalizes an opinion or attitude, it becomes integrated
Into his or her belief system and may be maintained even after the source of the message is forgotten.
A highly credible communicator is particularly important when message recipients have
A negative position toward the product, service, company, or issue being promoted, because the credible source is likely to inhibit counterarguments.
Reduced counterarguing should result in
Greater message acceptance and persuasion.
Because attitudes and opinions developed through internalization process become part of the individual's belief system
Marketers want to use communicators with high credibility.
Sales personnel are trained in the product line, which increases
Customers' perceptions of their expertise
Marketers of highly technical products recruit sales reps with
Specialized technical backgrounds in engineering, computer science, and other areas to ensure their expertise.
Spokespeople are often chosen because of
Their knowledge, experience, and expertise in a particular product or service area.
Endorsements from individuals or groups recognized as experts such as
Doctors or dentists are common in advertising, and spokespeople are to.
Perceived expertise of celebrity endorsers is more important in explaining purchase intentions
Than their attractiveness or trustworthiness.
Celebrity spokespeople are most effective when they are
Knowledgeable, experienced, and qualified to talk about the product they are endorsing.
Many trustworthy public figures hesitate to endorse products because of
The potential impact on their reputation and image.
Hidden cameras are used to show that the consumer is not a paid spokesperson and is making
An objective evaluation of the product.
Disguised brands are compared and
The sponsor's brand always performs better than the consumer's regular brand, and he or she is always surprised.
Advertisers use the overheard-conversation technique to enhance trustworthiness which involves creating
A situation in a commercial where a person is shown overhearing a conversation in which favorable claims are made about a product or service.
Marketers can deal with the source-trustworthiness issue by using IMC tools such as publicity. The information received from sources like newscasters is often very influential because
These individuals are perceived as unbiased and thus more credible, even though they are often presenting stories that stem from press releases.
Celebrities may appear on news programs or talk shows and promote
An upcoming cause or event such as the release of a new movie or music CD.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch 4, Pt. 4, intro to advertising
Ch 4/5, Pt. 5/1, Intro to Advertising
Ch 5, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
Ch 5, Pt. 3, Intro to Advertising
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ch. 7/?, Pt. 4/1, Intro to Advertising (incomplete)
Ch. 7, Pt. 3, Intro to Advertising
Ch. 7, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
Ch 14/7, Pt. 2/1, Intro to Advertising