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29 terms

Chapter 28 Biology

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exoskeleton
the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) including bony or horny parts such as nails or scales or hoofs
chitin
a tough semitransparent horny substance
appendage
a part that is joined to something larger
tracheal tube
one of many branching, air-filled tubes that extend throughout the bodies of many terrestrial arthropods
spiracle
a breathing orifice
book lung
organ in many arachnids containing many thin folds of membrane resembling the leaves of a book
Malpighian tubule
saclike organ in most terrestrial arthropods that extracts wastes from the blood, adding them to feces that move through the gut
molting
periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles
cephalothorax
region of a crustacean formed by the fusion of the head with the thorax
thorax
part of an insect's body that bears the wings and legs
abdomen
the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis
carapace
hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles
mandible
the lower jawbone in vertebrates
cheliped
one of the first pair of legs of decapods
swimmeret
one of the paired abdominal appendages of certain aquatic crustaceans that function primarily for carrying the eggs in females and are usually adapted for swimming
chelicera
either of the first pair of fang-like appendages near the mouth of an arachnid
pedipalp
pair of mouthparts in chelicerates that are usually modified to grab prey
spinneret
organ in spiders that contains silk glands
incomplete metamorphosis
insect development consisting of three stages: egg, nymph, and adult
nymph
a larva of an insect with incomplete metamorphosis (as the dragonfly or mayfly)
complete metamorphosis
Insect development consisting of four stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult
pupa
an insect in the inactive stage of development (when it is not feeding) intermediate between larva and adult
pheromone
a chemical substance secreted externally by some animals (especially insects) that influences the physiology or behavior of other animals of the same species
society
an extended social group having a distinctive cultural and economic organization
caste
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
endoskeleton
the internal skeleton
water vascular system
system of fluid-filled tubes used by echinoderms in locomotion and feeding and respiration
tube foot
tentacular tubular process of most echinoderms (starfish and sea urchins and holothurians) having a sucker at the end and used for e.g. locomotion and respiration
madreporite
sievelike structure through which the water vascular system of an echinoderm opens to the outside