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61 terms

Psychology Final Exam Broom

TCU PSYC 10213
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schizophrenia
Literal translation "split mind;" a group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, inappropriate emotions and actions; delusions & hallucinations
Theories about the causes of mental illness
Supernatural theories view abnormality as a result of divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin; Biological/Natural theories see abnormality as similar to physical disease; a breakdown of some systems of the body; Psychological theories see mental illness as a result of some trauma
Stone Age
Beliefs thought to be predominantly supernatural; trephination as treatment for mental illness; exorcisms
Ancient China
Predominantly a natural or biological approach to abnormality; concept of Yin and Yang; belief that emotions were a result of "vital air" flowing over certain organs
Ancient Greece, Egypt, Rome
theory of the "wandering uterus;" Hippocrates and the 4 humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile; Plato believed that mental disorders were caused by the rational mind being overcome by impulse, passion, or appetite; "insane" people were often confined to their homes, had their property taken away, and were not allowed to marry
Medieval Theories
largely viewed from a natural/biological perspective; the Inquisition was originated as a way to identify and punish religious heretics, but "witches" and "satanists" were also arrested; many of the accused witches may have been mentally ill and may have believed that they were witches; many may have also been the victims of poor nutrition or social control; psychic epidemics and mass hysteria: St. Vitus' Dance
Birth of mental hospitals
Patients were not well-treated in these facilities; they were often chained, locked in boxes, and put on display for a fee; Act for Regulating Madhouses passed in 1774: designed to clean up conditions and prevent people from being unjustly committed, required licensing and inspection as well as a physician signature for admission, applied only to paying patients in private institutions
Modern mental health
As the quality of institutions for the mentally ill began to improve, more people were admitted and quality again began to decline; many individuals were simply warehoused; this began to change in the early 20th century with increased understanding of the biological components of mental illness; Emil Kraeplin: developed early classification system for mental disorders that is the basis for today's system
Anxiety disorders
distressing, persistent maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety; include generalized anxiety disorder, phobia, OCD, panic disorder
Dissociative disorders
conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings; include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
client is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Phobia
Anxiety disorder; persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
OCD
Anxiety disorder; characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions
Panic disorder
Anxiety disorder; marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation
Dissociative amnesia
selective memory loss often brought on by extreme stress
Dissociative fugue
flight from one's home and identity accompanies amnesia
Dissociative identity disorder
rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities; formerly called multiple personality disorder
Mood disorders
characterized by emotional extremes; include major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, mania
Major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression; and the overexcited state of mania; formerly called manic-depressive disorder
Mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state; one end of bipolar
Personality disorders
disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning; usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions
Antisocial personality disorder
disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
Psychoanalysis
Freud believed the patient's free association, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight; use has rapidly decreased in recent years; Interpretation - the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
Social-Cognitive perspective
says that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences
Behavioral therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors; uses counter-conditioning, systematic desensitization & aversive conditioning
Criticisms of psychoanalysis
Is an interpretation; costly; must be often
Active listening
Paraphrase, Invite clarification, Reflect feelings
Humanistic approach
Emphasizes people's potential for self-fulfillment; help people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance; attempts to reduce conflicts that impede (stop) natural developmental growth; more interested in present and future, focused on conscious thoughts, taking responsibility for feelings and actions, focused on promoting growth, refers to people as clients rather than patients
DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Psychopharmacology
study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
Meta-analysis
procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
Humanistic v. psychoanalytic
focused more on present and future than past; focused on conscious thoughts and feelings rather than unconscious; taking immediate responsibility not focusing on uncovering hidden detriments; promoting growth rather than curing illness; clients not patients
Family therapy
treats the family as a system; views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; encourages family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
Rationale-emotive therapy
confrontational cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis; vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions; emphasizing a behavioral "homework" component
Attitude
often based on our beliefs that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events; if we believe someone is unkind, we may feel dislike for that person and act unfriendly
Attribution
tendency to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Asch
a series of studies published in the 1950s that demonstrated the power of conformity in groups comparing the length of lines
Foot-in-the-Door phenomenon
tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Cognitive dissonance theory
we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent; example- when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
Social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
Social loafing
tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Deindividuation
loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity; losing self and becoming more responsive to the group experience!
Frustration-Aggression Principle
principle that the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal creates anger
Aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Sociometry
the quantitative study of social relationships
Milgram
experiment on obedience to authority figures; a series of social psychology experiments conducted by this Yale University psychologist, which measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience
conformity
Asch's experiment is an example of
63%
% of people willing to do the most extreme level of shock in Milgram's shock experiment
obedience
Given the choice between obedience and morality, _________ will usually win
Psychoanalytic
Talking about your past and unresolved feelings
interpretation
taking the unconscious and making it meaningful
resistance
Person had a difficult situation, therapist trying to talk to them about it, they won't discuss it
group therapies
family therapy, couples therapy, self-help groups
Plato
this person's view of mental disorders is the rational mind being overcome by impulse, passion and appetite
psychological, biological/natural, spiritual/supernatural
3 perspectives for addressing psychological disorders
inquisition
many people were probably mentally ill during this period of history
Kraeplin
this person started the classification of mental disorders
bystander effect
less likely to help people if others are around
aggression
impacted by hormones, alcohol, hot weather increases likelihood