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66 terms

Bio review

test review
STUDY
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Which of the following is the best definition for recombinant DNA?
DNA that carries genes from different organisms.
When human gene is inserted into the yeast cell, the yeast cell produces the human protein encoded by that gene. This is evidence that the genetic code is universal among all life on earth. Which of these statements is an implicaation of the universality of the gentic code?
All life on earth is genetically related.
Which of these is a transgenic organism?
an organism carrying a gene that was acquired by artificial means
Which of the following best defines the term transgenic animal?
an animal containing a gene from a third "parent" maybe another species
The worlds first genetically engineered pharmaceutical product was?
Humulin
A Vaccine works by_
Stimulating the immune system
When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein, the_
Desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmidis taken up by the bacterium
The process of making multiple copies of a gene by inseting it into a host genome and culturing the host is called_
Gene cloning
A virus that has RNA as its genetic material can use_ to convert info stored in RNA to info stored in DNA.
reverse transcriptase
An advantage of using reverse transcriptase tp prepare a gene for cloning is that_.
the resulting DNA strand will lack introns
A collection of cloned recombinant plasmids that includes fragments from the entire genome of a cell is called a_.
genomic library
Nucleic acid probes are used to_
identify a specific nuclieotide sequence
Restriction enzymes are obtained from_.
Bacteria
"Sticky ends" are produced as a result of the action of_
a restriction enzyme
"Sticky ends" are?
single-stranded ends of fragments of double-stranded DNA
Which enzyme is used to bind DNA fragments together?
DNA ligase
Of the following, which is the last step in the production of a recombinant DNA plasmid?
using DNA ligase to join DNA fragments
You are attempting to link an individual to a crime. The only evidence you have is a tiny drop of blood. How can you use this drop of blood to make the association?
you can use PCR to increase the amount of DNA available for restriction fragment analysis
At one point, you were just an undifferentiated, single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cell function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells, while others play different roles. What name is given to the process that is reponsible for this?
cellular differentiation
The process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotype is_
gene expression
What name is given to a unit of bacterial chromosomes that controls the expression of a specific set of genes?
operon
Bacterial RNA polymerase binds to the_
promoter
In prokaryotes, the production of a single RNA transcript for a group of related genes is under the control of the_
operon
Which of the following includes the other choices?
operon
The_ acts as an on/off switch.
operator
Regulatory genes codes for_
repressors
Repressors block binding of RNA polymerase by attaching to_
operators
What would you assume if you found RNA transcripts of lactose-utilizing genes within E coli?
the presence of lactose
While examining a human cell that functions normally, you determine that it has 45 funtional chromosomes and one chromosome that is almost completely inactive. You immediately decide that it is very likely that this cell_
came from a normal humane female
what is the first level of control of eukaryotice gene transcription?
DNA packing and unpacking
Male tortoiseshell cats
are likely to be exceedingly rare and very likely to be sterile since normal male cats are XY
Which of these plays a role in the regulation of transcription in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
Eukaryotic DNA sequences called enhancers have a function similar to the_ of prokaryotic operons.
operators
In eukaryotic cells, repressors proteins inhibit transcription by binding to_
silencers
Inrons are
Unexpressed DNA sequences
Which of these is a type of post-trancriptional regulation of gene expression?
alteration of proteins
How can a single RNA transcript be translated into different polypeptides?
There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript.
Cells communticate with one antoher via_
signal transduction pathways
In fucture, scientists hope to be able to compare whole genomes of individuals, a new field called_
comparative genomes
Which of these statements can be logically inferred from the amount of DNA shared by chimpanzees and humans?
Humans and chimpanzeesshare a relatively recent common ancestor
To find the nucleotide sequence of human chromosomes had to be digested into small fragments and then
inserted into a vector and cloned
What technique was used by Celera Genomics to quickly produce a draft of the nucleotide sequence of the human genome?
whole-genome shotgun approach
Genetically human_ cells my directly affect future generations.
gametic
Ethical dilemmas raised by DNA technology and knowledge of the human genome include_.
E) all of the above
The short tandem repeat analysis_.
compares repetitive DNA sequences from different individuals
What is the advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin?
Human insulin is less likely to provoke an allergic reaction than cow, pig, or horse insulin
"Golden rice" is golden bc it is rich in_.
beta-carotene
What is a major source of restriction enzymes?
bacteria
DNA fragments that have matching sticky ends are joined by bonds formed by action of_
DNA ligase
Gel electrophoresis seperates DNA molecules on the basis of_.
their lengths
DNA and RNA are polymers composed of_ monomers.
nucleotide
The backbone of DNA consists of_.
a reapting sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate pattern
The DNA double helix is_.
made up of two polynucleotide strands
RNA contains_, whereas DNA contains_.
uracil...thymine
If adenine makes up 20% of the bases in aDNA double helix, what percent of the bases are guanine?
30%
in a DNA double helix, adenine pairs with_ and guanine pairs with_.
thymine...cytosine
If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence GTCCAT, what is the sequence of the other strand?
CAGGTA
Who disscovered the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
Evidence for the spiral nature of DNA came from_.
X-ray crystallography studies
What type of chemical bond joins the bases of complemantary DNA strands?
Hydrogen
After replication_.
each new DNA double helix consists of one strand and one new strand
During replication,_ are the enzymes responsible for joining the nucleotides of a new DNA strand together.
DNA polymerases
The modern phrasing of Beadle and Tatums hypothesis about relationships between genes and their productsis one gene one_
polypeptide
What name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organism?
phenotype
How many amino acids are common to all living systems?
20
How many nucleotides make up a condon?
3