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Study aids fall under..

Self Reg

Time Management/Procrastination fall under..

Self Reg

Attitude falls under..


Concentration falls under..

Self Reg

Reading/Listening Comprehension falls under..


Note-taking falls under..


Selecting main ideas falls under..


test-taking falls under..


4 parts of Academic Environment

-nature of the task
-teacher expectations
-social context/support
-available resources

Guidelines for forming study group members

-similar academic interests; not friends
-similar motivation/dedication to success
-limit group to 5
-identify purpose/lifetime of group
-schedule regular group meetings at the same time/place
-get acquainted

actions for study group members

-goal setting
-gathering info

academic help seeking behaviors

-be aware of task difficulty
-consider all available info
-expressing need for help that is most suitable to particular circumstance
-processing help received in a way that the probability of success

Academic Help-Seeking

the degree to which you seek academic help AND how strategic you are when seeking help

3 types of help-seeking behavior

1. avoidant
2. executive
3. instrumental

Avoidant Help Seeking

wont ask for help, even when needed


will only ask for help to get an answer; not interested in learning
-goal: to get right answer quickly rather than learn material/develop skills
(performance goal)


best kind; want to understand the process behind it all
-goal: learn material/develop skill
-most strategic, long term memory
(mastery oriented)

Study Aids

Pre-reading: Title, Chapter summary/preview, Review questions
During-reading: Key terms, Graphics, Glossary, Marginal Notes
After-reading: Chapter summaries, Review questions, References

How are study aids useful?

-activates prior knowledge, checks understanding (self-testing), process info in new way (short->long term)

Effective study aids

-creating own makes more meaningful (organize, elaborate, make sense)

Strategies for managing time

1. master calendar/to-do lists
2. set useful goal, study on the run, just say 'no', scheduling time based on priorities, est. routine

Forms of procrastination stemming from self-deception

1. perfectionism
2. inappropriate commitments
3. perceiving job as too big
4. belief work best under pressure

Procrastination elimination strategies

1. Reinforcement (watch tv)
2. Reminders (sticky notes)
3. Bits and pieces (breakdown)
4. 5 Min plan
5. Face the music

Self-Regulation Steps

Awareness: what we are doing so we know whether or not we are meeting goals
Reflection: if attention wanders/break concentration, then we need to know what happened so we can redirect to task
Control: How will you achieve that redirection?

Attention vs Concentration

attention is something that gets our focus
concentration is something that maintains it

Limited Capacity to concentrate

-can only concentrated on a limited # of things at one time
-built-in limitation in our minds

Internal vs. external distractions

internal: sleepiness
external: tv

Strategies for concentrating while Listening

-read before class
-set goals
-watch instructor
-listen for main points
-generate questions
-use not-taking strategies

Strategies for concentrating while Studying

-develop awareness
-reflect on experiences
-take control
-improve study environment
-develop goals

3 factors that affect the reading process


Pre-Reading Strategies

-look at syllabus
-est goal
-develop questions

During-Reading Strategies

-find appropriate read speed
-read by idea units
-look for main ideas/supporting details
-ask questions to check for understanding
-use highlighter
-take notes in outline form

Post-Reading Strategies

-Summarize in own words
-identify main idea/supporting details
-see if questions were answered
-write some test ?s
-teach the info to someone else

Why is reading/listening a constructive process?

Active; engaging, self-testing, choosing info processing strategies, monitoring concentration, selecting main ideas, being aware of author biases, being aware of intended audience


-prior knowledge


-learning strategies
-comprehension monitoring
-prior knowledge


-target audience
-level of complexity
-text features

Pre-note taking strategies

-prior knowledge; reading text bfore class
-do hw before class
-have all materials
-sit closer to lecturer
-dating/titling notes

During-note taking strategies

-writing on 1 side of page so you can use other side for questions/note items
-paraphrase (no verbatim unless defs/formulas)
-leave space btw main ideas/sub-topics
-writing ex instructor gives
-make connections
-use asterisks/other codes to identify main ideas
-numbering points if prof is making list
-creating drawings, tables, outlines for the main points

After-note taking strategies

-review notes after class
-note confusions/questions
-expand abbreviations
-fill in gaps
-indexing/writing topics in margins
-add. info
-create written/graphic summaries

SUNY method

Part C: (whole L page) extra work/glossary of terms, practice problems, examples, graphics, unanswered ?s
Part B: (1/4 of R page) ?s that mirror reading
Part A: (3/4 R page) notes

Cornell Method

2"- edit/summarize notes
5 1/2"- notes
1"- ideas, thoughts, ?s

Text comprised of:

-topic (big picture, general category)
-main ideas (author's message, not always overtly stated; often implied)
-supporting details (evidence used to support main ideas)

2 factors that help identify important info

-instructor expectations
-nature of the academic task
-individual goals

Pre-test strategies

-predict test ?s
-notice relationship btw text/lectures
-know exam
-know what worked last time

During-test strategies

-start with what you know

Post-test strategies

-read feedback
-look for patterns
-helpful for future

Prep for essay vs. multiple choice

-learn defs
-understand key terms
-generate possible ?s
-prepare outlines

Bloom's taxonomy


ABC Model

A. The Event
B. Perception/Evaluation or Self-talk/beliefs
C. Response: Emotional, physical, behavioral, cognitive

A of ABC Model

-name events that are anxiety-producing

B of ABC Model

-beliefs about yourself/event determine anxiety levels
-create new story for self
-self-efficacy: if you dont think you can do it, you are probably right

C of ABC Model

-symptoms let us know we are experiencing anxiety

ways of dealing with stress according to ABC model

A: alter event
B: alter belief
-self-sabotage->enabling belief
-re-fram self-talk to positive self-talk
C: reduce effects of stressful consequences


are neutral and a part of Will.
it's what we do with the info that classifies them.
Dictate our behaviors/cognition

Enabling beliefs

-help work toward goals
-more strategic when studying
-persist longer in face of challenges
-use more effective learning strategies
-more encouraged to complete tasks

Self-Sabotaging beliefs

-discourage us from working at a learning activity because we are convinced/worried that we really can't do it

3 factors that influence selecting a main idea

-nature of the academic task
-teacher's expectations
-your goals

Time Management Macro level

(ongoing process)

Time Management Micro level

(moment to moment)

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