duplication of chromosome (10-12 Hr)
M PHASE (mitosis)
separation of DNA/nucleus and separation of cytoplasm (1 hr)
include the phases that prepare cells for growth and division
gap phase or growth phase (proteins produced for organelle production)
gap phase or growth phase (proteins produced for mitosis)
is all DNA replicated? is environment favorable
enter mitosis, trigger early mitotic events that lead to chromosome alignment on the spindle in metaphase
Metaphase to anaphase transition
are all chromosome attached to the spindle? stimulate sister-chromatid separation, leading to mitosis and cytokinesis
is environment favorable? occurs in late g1 where the cell commits to cell cycle entry and chromosome duplication
robust and reliable
the system is ___ in that many assurances are in place to operate under various conditions
the system is ___ in that it is found in specific cell types and responds to specific signal
__ forms a complex with cyclin dependent kinase to trigger cell cycle event
_ are inactive with cyclins
cyclin dependent kinase
protein kinases that rise and falls as the cell progresses through the cell cycle at specific events
cdk regulators that must be bound to cdks for activity
triggers and activates cell cycle events
activate cdks in late g1 to trigger progression through start resulting in commitment to cell cycle entry
binds cdks after progression through start to help stimulate chromosome duplication
activate cdks that stimulate entry into mitosis at g2/m checkpoint
helps govern activities of the g1/s cyclins which control progression through start in late g1
cdk inhibitor protein, regulate cyclin-cdk complexes by binding to the complex via the cdk active site rendering it inactive
favorable extracellular environment
g1/s-cdk and s-cdk
unreplicated dna and dna damage
chromosome unattached to spindle
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