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Ch. 6, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
Terms in this set (100)
Several so-called consumer advocates and product experts have been criticized for giving
Favorable reviews and/or promoting specific product on local and national TV news programs and other shows without disclosing that they were being paid by companies to mention their brands.
New set of guidelines require online endorsers and bloggers disclose
Any material connection they might have to a company.
Many companies believe the use of their president or CEO is
The ultimate expression of the company's commitment to quality and customer service.
The use of a president or CEO for some companies in their ads can help create
An identity and personality for the company and/or brand.
The practice of using company founders, owners, and presidents as advertising spokespersons is particularly prevalent
Among small and midsize companies such as retailers and auto dealers serving local markets.
Many marketing and advertising experts question the strategy of using company presidents or owners in their ads and note that
It is often ego rather than logic that is the reason for their use.
Many experts suggest that businesspeople should get in front of the camera only if they
Exude credibility and possess the intangible quality of provoking a warm, fuzzy feeling in viewers.
creating an image or culture around the CEO can make the corporate brand image more vulnerable if the individual
Becomes involved in any type of controversy such as a labor dispute, political issue, or personal problem.
CEO spokespeople who become very popular may get more attention than
Their company's porduct/service or advertising message.
If a firm's image becomes too closely tied to a popular leader there can be problems if that person
Leaves the company.
The recent financial crisis and scandals involving top executives in some companies has eroded
Confidence in executives, which affects their ability to come across as trustworthy.
In the new era of social media, it is very easy to criticize corporate leaders who
Do not come across as trustworthy and believable.
Some research suggests the use of a company president or CEO can improve
Attitudes and increase the likelihood that consumers will inquire about a company's product or service.
Defenders of the practice of using CEOs in commercials argue that
The use of top executives or business owners in ads is an effective way of projecting an image of trust and honesty, and the idea that the company isn't run by some faceless corporate mouth.
A high credibility source is not always an asset, nor is
A low credibility source always a liability.
High and low-credibility sources are equally effective when
They are arguing for a position opposing their own best interest.
A very credible source is more effective when message recipients
Are not in favor of the position advocated in the message.
A very credible source is less important when the audience has a neutral position, and such a source
May be less effective than a moderately credible source when the receiver's initial attitude is favorable.
The persuasiveness of messages increases with the passage of time.
The immediate impact of a persuasive message may be inhibited because of its association with a low-credibility source but with time
The associations of the message with the source diminishes and the receiver's attention focuses more favorable information in the message, resulting in more support.
Many studies have failed to demonstrate the presence of a
Sleeper effect and many advertisers hesitate to count on it, since exposer to a credible source is a more reliable strategy.
Similarity, familiarity, and likability
A supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message
Knowledge of the source through exposure.
An affection for the source as a result of physical appearance, behavior, or other personal traits.
Source attractiveness leads to persuasion Through
A process of identification
The receiver is motivated to seek some type of relationship with the source and thus adopts similar beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or behavior.
Maintaining the position of identification depends on the source's
Continued support for the position as well as the receiver's continued identification with the source.
If the source changes position the receiver
May also change
Unlike internalization, identification does not usually integrate inforamtion
From an attractive source into the receiver's belief system.
The receiver may maintain the attitudinal position or behavior through identification only as long as
It is supported by the source or the source remains attractive.
Receivers of persuasive communications are more likely to attend to and
Identify with people they find likable or similar to themselves.
Similarity and likability are the two source characteristics marketers seek
When choosing a communicator
If the communicator and receiver have similar needs, goals, interests, and lifestyles
The position advocated by the source is better understood and received.
Similarity is used when companies select salespeople whose characteristics
Match well with their customers.
A sales position for a particular region may be staffed by someone local who has background and
Interests in common with the customers.
Global marketers often hire foreign nationals as salespeople so customers
Can relate more easily to them.
Companies try to recruit former athletes to sell sporting goods or beer since
Their customers usually have a strong interest in sports.
Customers who perceive a salesperson as similar to themselves are more likely
To be influenced by his or her message.
Similarity is used by creating a situation where teh consumer
Feels empathy for the person shown in the commercial.
In a slice-of-life commercial, the advertiser usually starts by showing
An event or predicament that consumers often go through with the hope of getting the consumer to think "I can see myself in that situation".
A slice of life commercial can help establish a bond of similarity between
The communicator and the receiver increasing the source's level of persuasiveness.
Marketers like to cast actors in their commercials
That consumers will notice, recognize, identify with, and remember as well as help differentiate their products and services.
In some cases, marketers with their actors try to create a personality figure
For the company or brand taht consumers will find likable.
Casting directors for commercials consider factors such as
Similarity and how the audience will identify with people when looking for talent to use in commercials.
Many companies feel that the best way to connect with consumers is by using
Regular-looking, everyday people with whom the average person can easily identify.
The use of celebrities is highest in
Fashion, sports, and teen magazines
The use of celebrities is lowest for
General news and business publications.
the ability of an ad to gain and hold the consumer's attention, and many advertisers think celebrities have this.
Some advertisers think a popular celebrity will favorably influence consuemrs
Feelings, attitudes, and purchase behavior.
Many marketers believe celebrities can enhance the target audience's
Perception of the product in thers of image and/or performance.
A well-known athlete may convince potential buyers that the product will enhance
Their own performance.
Factors that must be considered when a company decides to use a celebrity spokesperson
The dangers of overshadowing the product and being overexposed, the target audience's receptivity, and risks to the advertiser.
Overshadowing the Product
Consumers may focus their attention on the celebrity and fail to notice the brand or advertising message.
When the personality of the celebrity endorser overshadows the brand he or she is advertising and thus has a negative impact rather than helping to sell it.
To avoid the vampire effect, advertisers should select
A celebrity spokesperson who will attract attention and enhance the sales message, yet not overshadow the brand.
A recent study found that celebrity overshadowing can be particularly problematic when
The consumers have low attachment to or interest in the celebrity.
Consumers are often skeptical of endorsements
because they know the celebrities are being paid
Overexposure is particularly pronounced when a celebrity endorses
Too many products or companies and become overexposed.
Advertisers can protect themselves against overexposure with an
Exclusivity clause limiting the number of products a celebrity can endorse.
Exclusivity clauses meant to protect against overexposure are usually
Expensive and most celebrities agree not to endorse similar product anyway.
Many celebrities who know their fame is fleeting
Try to earn as much endorsement money as possible, yet they must be careful not to damage their credibility be endorsing too many products.
Target Audiences' Receptivity
One of the most important considerations in choosing a celebrity endorser is how well the individual matches with and is received by the advertiser's target audience
Consumers who are particularly knowledgeable about a product or service or have strongly established attitudes
May be less influenced by a celebrity than those with little knowledge or neutral attitudes.
Some companies avoid the use of celebrities entirely as they have determined that
The market they are targeting is really not influenced by their endorsements.
Risk to the Advertiser
A celebrity's behavior may pose a risk to a company
A number of entertainers and athletes have been involved in activities that could
Embarrass the companies whose products they endorsed.
Crisis situations regarding endorsers are not limited to athletes
Problems can occur with other types of celebrities as well.
Problems can arise with individuals who have become celebrities
Based on their role as an advertising spokesperson.
Marketers recognize that the use of celebrity endorsers can be a very expensive and high-risk strategy because
What the celebrities do in their personal lives can impact the image and the way they are viewed by the public.
Some companies face a dilemma in selecting celebrity endorsers:
While they prefer them to be upright, they still want them to havve an edge or be somewhat irreverent to be able to connect with consuners.
To avoid problems, companies often research a celebrity's personal life and background and many endorsement contracts include
A morals clause allowing the company to terminate the contract if a controversy arises.
Marketers should remember that adding a morals clause to the endorsement contracts
Only gets them out of a problem and doesn't prevent it from happening.
It is important that marketers carefully consider the character of a celebrity as well as the
Potential risk associated with using him or her as a spokesperson or endorser for the company or one of its brands.
Return on Investment
Perhaps the most important factors, marketers use celebrities to increase awareness of and attention to their company and/or brands, as well as their advertisements, and to develop strong associations between the celebrity and the brand that will result in higher purchase returns.
Major achievements by athletes do not improve sales of the brands relative
To their competitors.
Some companies are changing their relationships with celebrity endorsers and having them
Become more involved with their companies and brands rather than just appearing in advertisements.
Many high-profile celebrities have become involved in areas such as
Product design and development as well as the advertising creative rocess.
Some marketing experts argue that celebrity deals are little more than
Window dressing while others argue that they can be valuable.
Advertisers must try to match the product or company's image, the characteristics of the target market, and the
Personality of the celebrity.
The image celebrities project to consumers can be just as important
As their ability to attract attention.
According to the meaning transfer model, a celebrity's effectiveness as an endorser depends on the
Culturally acquired meanings he or she brings to the endorsement process.
According to the meaning transfer model each celebrity contains many meanings including
Status, class, gender, and age, as well as personality and lifestyle.
According to the meaning transfer model, celebrities draw powerful meanings from the
Roles they assume and each dramatic role brings the celebrity into contact with a range of objects, persons, and contexts.
According to the meaning transfer model, out of the objects, persons, and contexts that celebrities have are
Transferred meanings that then reside in the celebrity.
According to the meaning transfer model, celebrity endorsers bring their meaning and image into the ad and
Transfer them to the product they are endorsing.
The final stage of the meaning transfer model, the meanings the celebrity has given to the product
Are transferred to the consumer.
In the final stage of the meaning transfer model of product to consumer from celebrity endorsements is complicated and difficult to achieve. The way consumers
Take possession of the meaning the celebrity has transferred to a product is the least understood part of the process.
Implications of the meaning transfer model include how marketers must first decide on the
Image or symbolic meanings important to the target audience for the particular product, service, or company.
Marketers must determine which celebrity best represents
The meaning or image to be projected for the meaning transfer model to work.
An advertising campaign must designed according to the meaning transfer model
That captures the meaning in the product and moves it to the consumer.
Marketing and advertising personnel often rely on intuition in choosing celebrity endorsers for their companies or products, but
Some companies conduct research studies to determine consumer's perceptions of celebrities meaning.
Marketers pretest ads to determine whether they transfer the proper meaning of the product. When celebrity endorsers are used
The marketer should track the campaign's efefctiveness.
Celebrities who are no longer in the limelight may lose their ability to transfer
Any significant meanings to the product.
Factors Marketers take into account When Choosing a Celebrity Endorser
The celebrity's match with the target audience and the product/service or brand, the overall image of the celebrity, the cost of acquiring the celebrity, trustworthiness, the risk of controversy, celebrity's familiarity and likability among the target audience.
Q Score Respondents are asked to indicate
Whether they have ever seen or heard of the performer or sports personality and, if they have, to rate him or her on a scale that includes one of favorites, very good, good, fair, and poor.
Familiarity Score indicates
What percentage of people has heard of the person
One of my favorites score is an
Absolute measure of the appeal or popularity of the celebrity.
Q-Score is calculated by asking the percentage of respondents who indicate that a person is "one of my favorites" and then
Dividing the number by the percentage of respondents who indicate they heard of that person.
Q scores are important because they answer the question
How appealing is the person among those who do now him or her.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch 4, Pt. 4, intro to advertising
Ch 4/5, Pt. 5/1, Intro to Advertising
Ch 5, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
Ch. 6, Pt. 3, Intro to Advertising
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ch. 7/?, Pt. 4/1, Intro to Advertising (incomplete)
Ch. 7, Pt. 3, Intro to Advertising
Ch. 7, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
Ch 14/7, Pt. 2/1, Intro to Advertising