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Topic 3: Ancient India and China
Terms in this set (92)
Alexander the Great
Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered the Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 B.C.E. ; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures
Mountains making the northern border of the Indian subcontient; site of the Aryan settlements that formed small kingdoms or warrior republics
Seasonal winds crossing Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia; during summer bring rains
Indo-European nomadic pastoralists who replaced Harappan civilization; militarized society
The classical and sacred Indian language.
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
Indian epics, deeply imbued with Hindu teachings; Mahabharta-Indian epic of war, princely honor,love, and social duty; written down in the last centuries B.C.E.; previously handed down in oral form. Ramayan-One of the great epic tales from classical India; traces adventures of King Rama and his wife, Sita; written 4th to 2nd centuries B.C.E.
Later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utilized by Brahmans to restore religious authority.
The categories organizing Indian society into a functional hierarchy. The strict social structure that the Aryans brought with them to the Indus Valley. It is derived from the word 'Varna', which means skin color, and eventually became known as the social structure.
Brahmans (priests), warriors, merchants, and peasants; beneath four Aryan castes was a group of socially untouchable Dasas
Lowest caste in Indian society; performed tasks that were considered polluting- street sweeping, removal of human waste, and tanning
Chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal hard-drinking warrior
Established in Indian subcontient in 4th century B.C.E. following the invasion of Alexander the Great.
(r. 322-298 B.C.E.) Founder of Maurya dynasty; the first empire in Indian subcontinen; first centralized government since Harappan civilization.
(r. 273-232 B.C.E.) Grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; extended conquests of dynasty; converted to Buddhism and sponsored its spread throughout his empire.
The caste position and career determined by a person's birth; Hindu culture required that one accept one's social position and perform occupation to the best of one's ability in order to have a better situation in the next life; accumulation of all the good and all the bad in a person's life
Invaders from Kush, Nile civilization, after Mauryan dynasty
Built an empire in the 3rd century C.E. that included all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized than Mauryan empire
(350-275 B.C.E.) Political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya; one of the authors of Arthashastra; believed in scientific application of warfare
Originally referred to as Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas
Could come from lower castes, upset the Brahmans
The most important Hindu deities. Vishnu-The Brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshiped. Shiva-Hindu god of destruction and reproduction; worshiped as the personification of cosmic forces of change.
The successive rebirth of the soul according to merits earned in previous lives. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding
creator of a major Indian and Asian religion; born in 6th century B.C.E.; taught that enlightenment could be achieved only by abandoning desires for all Earthly things
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism.
the Buddhist state of enlightenment, a state of tranquility
Written by Vatsayana during Gupta era; offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher-caste males, including grooming, hygiene, etiquette, selection of wives, and love making
stone shrines built to house relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms
Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office holding shi; superseded shi as governors of China
In Hinduism and Buddhism- the sum of a person's actions in this and previous states of existence; determined the caste one would be born into in the next life.
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Where did Buddhism come from?
India, not China
During what Dynasty was paper made?
What is syncretism?
The combination of cultural elements that is a common result of significant contact between cultures.
Confucius's disciples compiled his wisdom in what came to be known as the ___________________, or collected sayings: hence, "Confucius says."
Which dynasty lasted the longest? (China)
Internal conflicts in China between the 8th and 3rd Centuries BCE resulted in ___________________ raiding farm areas of the north China plain.
The founder of the brief Qin Dynasty in 221 B.C.E.
Established in 221 B.C.E. at the end of the Warring States period following the decline of the Zhou Dynasty; fell in 207 B.C.E..
Chinese dynasty that succeeded the Qin 202 B.C.E; ruled for next 400 years.
a powerful family or group of rulers that maintains its position or power for some time
Originally a vassal family of Shang China; possibly Turkic in origin; overthrew the Shang and established second historical Chinese dynasty that flourished 1122 to 256 B.C.E.
What were the Zhou plagued by?
A decline in the political infrastructure and frequent invasions by nomadic people from border regions.
How did the Zhou Dynasty rule China?
The Zhou did not establish a powerful government, ruling instead through alliances with regional princes and noble families.
What was China's feudal period? (Zhou)
Rulers depending on a network of loyalties and obligation to and from their landlord-vassals.
What caused the decline of the Zhou?
When regional land-owning aristocrats solidified their own power base and disregarded the central government.
The Middle Kingdom (China)
Settlement from the Huang he to the Yangzi that became China's core. It provided rich agricultural lands plus the benefits of two different agricultures—wheat growing in the north, rice-growing in the south—a diversity that encouraged population growth.
________________________ became a key feature justification for Chinese imperial rule from the Zhou onward.
The Mandate of Heaven
The emperors of China were known as what?
Sons of Heaven
How did the Zhou discourage religious practices of the Huang he civilization?
The Zhou banned human sacrifice and urged more restrained ceremonies to worship the gods.
How did the Zhou promote linguistic unity?
They got Mandarin Chinese to spread through the Middle Kingdom.
Which Chinese philosopher provided the core of China's distinctive philosophical heritage in the late 6th century and early 5th century B.C.E.?
Who was Confucius?
Also known as Kung Fuzi; major Chinese philosopher born in the 6th century B.C.E.; author of Analects; philosophy based on need for restoration on order through advice of superior men to be found among the shi.
What happened to the Zhou during the Era of the Warring States (Between 402 and 201 B.C.E.)?
The Zhou Dynasty disintegrated.
Why did Shi Huangdi select officials from non aristocratic groups?
So that they would owe their power to him and not dare to develop their own independent bases.
The Great Wall of China
Chinese defensive fortification intended to keep out the nomadic invaders from the north; initiated during Qin dynasty and reign of Shi Huangdi
How was the Great Wall of China built?
It was built by forced labor, conscripted by the central bureaucracy from among the peasantry.
National census, which provided data for the calculation of tax revenues and labor service
Standardized coinage, weights, and measures
Uniform written language
New irrigation projects
Promoted manufacturing (especially silk)
Attacked formal culture (burning books)
(202 BCE-220 CE) This dynasty continued the centralization of the Qin Dynasty, but focused on Confucianism and education instead of Legalism.
Han "Warrior Emperor" who greatly expanded the empire, (140-87 BCE); promoted peace; supported Confucianism; Conducted trade with the Parthian Empire in the Middle East. He also conducted the FIRST Civil service examinations in the world.
Han Dynasty Decline
Central control weakened
Invasions from central Asia, spearheaded by a nomadic people called the Huns, who had long threatened China's northern borders, overturned the dynasty entirely.
Difference between Qin and Han Dynasties Government
The Qin stressed central authority, whereas the Han expanded the powers of bureaucracy.
How was family authority enhanced among the wealthy land-owning groups?
By the practice of ancestor worship.
Classic Model of Centralized Government (Qin)
The establishment of centralized codes and appointment of officials directly by central authority, rather than reliance on arrangements with numerous existing local governments.
Was Confucius a religious leader?
No, he was not.
Human nature was evil and required restraint and discipline.
Chinese school of political philosophy; stressed the need for the absolute power of the emperor enforced through strict application of laws.
What does "dao" mean?
"The way of nature"
A Philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinker Laozi, Who taught that people should be guided by a universal (cosmic) force called the Dao. First appealed to many in the upper classes, who had an interest in a more elaborate spirituality; embraced traditional Chinese beliefs in nature's harmony and added a sense of nature's mystery.
Chinese Daoist philosopher; taught that governments were of secondary importance and recommended retreat from society into nature. Stressed that nature contains a divine impulse that directs all life.
China's family system stressed a rigid ________.
Three Main Social Groups of Classical China
The Landowning Aristocracy and the Education Bureaucrats, or mandarins formed the top group.
Next, came the laboring masses: peasants and also urban artisans who manufactured goods.
Finally, came the mean people, the general category identified as applying to those without meaningful skills. Performing artists were ranked in this group.
Technological Advancements of Classical China
Ox-drawn plows (around 300 BCE)
A new collar for draft animals (Han)
Chinese iron mining was advanced, as pulleys and winding gear were devised to bring material to the surface. Iron tools and other implements such as lamps were widely used.
First water-powered mills (Han)
Invention of paper (Han)
The spread of Buddhism to China from India
Division in Belief Systems
Daoism v. Confucianism
What is another name for Daoism?
What did the Chinese discover to get accused individuals to confess to a crime?
By alternating torture with benevolence
A network of roads through central Asia known collectively as the __________ ____________.
Originally a vassal family of the Shang; possibly Turkic-speaking in origin; overthrew Shang and established 2nd Chinese Dynasty (1122-256 B.C.E.)
Capital of Zhou Dynasty
Social organization created by exchanging grants of land (fiefs) in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou Dynasty
Warring States Period
time of warfare between regional lords following the decline of the Zhou dynasty in the 8th century B.C.E.
A civilization along the Indus River estblished around 7,000 BCE. This city consisted of over 5,000 square miles.
Veneration of Ancestors
Family ancestors could bring good or evil fortune to the living members of the family.
the eternal essence of reality and the source of the universe, beyond the reach of human perception and thought
counting system based on units of ten
property or money brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage
grandson of Chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death
rise and fall of Chinese dynasties according to the Mandate of Heaven
Confucian belief in respecting your elders
Complete control of a product or business by one person or group
the policy of territorial or economic expansion
a person who works for a government
military rulers of small states, local military rulers
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