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Final exam review
What are the two leading causes of death in the United States that are diseases that are considered lifestyle related and mostly preventable?
Cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, coronary heart diseases, congestive heart diseases, stroke) and Cancer (especially lung).
What are some key factors contributing to the increasing prevalence of obesity and excessive body weight in the United States?
High cholesterol (which is blood lipids, like fatty acids), Sedentary lifestyle due to technology
What is cardiovascular disease and who does it affect?
Cardiovascular disease is a broad term used to describe a range of diseases that affect the heart or blood vessels, it's any disease within the cardiovascular system (blood, heart, blood vessels). More than 35% of all deaths in the US are related to cardiovascular disease. Some cardiovascular diseases are high blood pressure, coronary heart disease (fatty deposits narrow the arteries), congestive heart disease and strokes. It affects people with high blood pressure, usually overweight, can be hereditary.
Familiarize yourself with cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, and other common diseases in America.
Cholesterol is related to cardiovascular disease and obesity. Cholesterol is a type of blood lipid, and are carried in the blood stream via high (good) and low (bad) density lipoproteins. A total healthy cholesterol is below 200. High is up to 239, and high risk level is over 240. High Blood Pressure occurs under stress and when the arteries are clogged in the heart due to clots and blockages related to blood lipids.

Diabetes: Type I is due to the fact that pancreas (which regulates blood sugar) quits working and so there is not enough insulin produced and so blood sugar is not delivered to the cells, which leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), and it also doesn't produce glucose so it cannot prevent getting too low. Type II is associated with obesity because the cells have become insulin resistant (because they're blocked by fat often), but their bodies produce enough insulin, so still, blood sugar doesn't get into the cells.

Cancer: Often lung cancer, caused by smoking.
What is the recommended amount of physical exercise?
1: Moderate activity for 30 minutes a day for five days a week
2: Intense activity for 20 minutes a day three times a week, and resistance training two times a week
What are the national health objectives?
Fix 10 major areas: Physical activity, Obesity, Tobacco Use, mental health, injury and violence, substance abuse, responsible sexual behavior, immunization, access to health care, environmental policy
What are some key goals of the Healthy People 2010 initiative and what are the rationales behind these goals
increase quality and length of healthy life and eliminate health disparities, better health for all, because with knowledge comes understanding and happier healthier citizens are always good. Good health is acheiveable and this initiative aims to make it easy for everyone.
Question 1: The leading causes of death in the United States today are largely lifestyle related. What percent of these deaths could have been prevented through a healthy lifestyle program?
Question 2: What is a major form of cardiovascular disease in which the arteries of the heart are narrowed by fatty deposits such as cholesterol and triglycerides preventing the heart from receiving oxygen and nutrients?
Coronary heart disease
Question 3: The most effective way to prevent cancer is to incorporate all the following healthy lifestyle habits EXCEPT
Smokeless tobacco instead of cigarettes
Question 4: Overweight is defined as a person with a BMI of 25 to 29.9, or, who is between
25 to 30 pounds over the recommended weight for their height.
Question 5: Which form of cholesterol in known as good cholesterol ?
High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
Question 6: What is a healthy total cholesterol level for the average adult?
Below 200 mg/dl
Question 7: Which form of diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all cases of diabetes and is associated with poor lifestyle habits and abdominal obesity?
Type 2 diabetes
Question 8: Which form of arthritis is caused by degeneration of cartilage in joints creating a wearing on the surfaces of articulating bones, causing inflammation and pain?
Question 9: The monetary value of lost work time as a result of musculoskeletal injuries was estimated to be
$120 billion dollars.
Question 10: What do Americans name as the number one factor that negatively affects their stress level?
Familiarize yourself with the different fitness assessments and what each one measures. What does a comprehensive fitness assessment involve and what is its role in health management?
A fitness assessment is a systematic problem-solving method that provide an individual with information on where and how to start and maintain an excercise program, this way needs and status can be compiled. Physiological assessments provide a wealth of information regarding overal health, and a guideline as to how to acheive peak physical fitness. Two examples: assessing resting heart rate (lower heart rate= more strong, efficient heart, should be from 60-80 BPM) and blood pressure (uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack/failure, kidney failure) Systolic: pressure produced by heart to pump blood thru body. Diastolic is the minimum pressure within the arteries through a full cardiac cycle. Different ways to assess fitness: Resting Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, BMI, Cardiorespiratory efficiency, Flexibility, and Muscular Endurance, Postural Assesment.
Body composition can be an indication of risk for certain diseases. How can body composition be used as part of a fitness program?
Body Composition Assesments help to determine if an individual's weight and fat percentages are healthy. People with too much fat are at risk for high blood pressure/cholesterol, diabetes. It can help determine whether a person needs to lose weight/fat and what kind of excercise to do.
What is BMI?
BMI: Body Mass Index, used to determine if an individual's weight is appropriate for their height. BMI is either calculated via a proportion of height and weight or a machine (underwater weighing, electropulse thing). Healthy BMI is 18.5-24.9, doesn't diferentiate between fat and lean body mass.
What is the difference between overweight and obese?
Overweight is a person who has a BMI of 25-29.9, and who is 25 to 30 lbs over the recommended weight for height. Obesity is the condition of being considerably overweight, with a BMI of 30 or more, and who is at least 30 lbs greater than their recommended weight.
What kind of information is gained from a postural assessment?
Posture is important for body efficiency and injury prevention. A postural assessment determines whether their are postural distortions. Distortions indicate weak muscles and imbalances, and recognizing them allows individuals to fix them. There are lower extremity postural distortions, lumbo-pelvic-hip postural distortions, and upper extremity postural distortions. Improving posture allows the body to function properly, increase flexibility and strength potential and reduce chances of injury.
Question 1: By gathering information through the fitness assessment, a fundamental representation of all of the following can be determined for an individual EXCEPT
Mental health
Question 2: When measuring the carotid pulse, excessive pressure can decrease blood pressure leading to all of the following EXCEPT
Increased heart rate
Question 3: Blood pressure measurements consist of systolic over diastolic readings. Normal systolic pressure ranges from
120 mm Hg - 130 mm Hg
Question 4: Which assessment BEST determines an individual s muscular endurance capabilities?
Push-up Test
Question 5: All of the following are solutions for improving postural distortion patterns EXCEPT
Performing repetitive motions throughout the day
Question 6: All of the following measure body fat percentage EXCEPT
Step Test
Question 7: Proper posture enables all of the following EXCEPT
Optimal cardiorespiratory efficiency
Question 8: All of the following are examples of postural distortion patterns EXCEPT
Elbow postural distortion
Question 9: The lumbo-pelvic-hip postural distortion is characterized by
an anterior pelvic tilt
Question 10: The upper extremity postural distortion is characterized by
rounded shoulders and forward head.
What are the 3 macronutrients? Why is it important to consume appropriate amounts of each?
The three macronutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. It's important to maintain appropriate amounts of each to maintain bodily function, not developing deficiencies. They provide energy for all bodily functions. Carbs and fats provide energy and protein to support the immune system and build and repair tissue.
What are micronutrients?
Micronutrients are required only in small amounts, they are vitamins and minerals.
What are some important considerations in selecting carbohydrate sources
The relative salt, fat, and sugars in the carbohydrate sources, whole grains etc. Limit sugar intake, chose only natural sugars, fiber, legumes, chose whole foods, get 25 grams of fiber a day.
Why is calorie management important? How should calorie management be integrated into a fitness program
It's important to balance calories expended with calories consumed to maintain health. 80% of deaths are related to consuming too many calories (bad ones)
Question 1: There are six classes of nutrients. The macronutrients include all of the following EXCEPT:
Question 2: The micronutrients include:
Vitamins and minerals
Question 3: The macronutrients yield energy. Which one yields the most energy?
Question 4: Components of a healthy diet include:
I. Consume mostly carbohydrates from whole grains, fruits and vegetables
II. Adequate fluid intake
III. Consume at least 25 grams of fiber
IV. Consume lean protein sources
Correct Answer: All of the above
Question 5: The daily recommended amount of fiber is at least
25 grams.
Question 6: Essential nutrients
must be supplied by the diet.
Question 7: ____________ are the major source of energy for the body. The brain requires this fuel source exclusively.
Question 8: True or False; Carbohydrates, protein and fat are all converted to body fat when calories needs are exceeded.
Question 9: A daily multivitamin and mineral
serves as insurance for a less than optimal diet.
Question 10: Daily fluid requirements can be met by
Food and beverages
What can positively and negatively affect flexibility?
Age, previous injuries, and activity level can all negatively affect flexibility.
Definition of flexibility:
Flexibility is the normal extensibility of all soft tissue that allows the full range of motion of a joint. For extensibility there must be optimum muscular control throughout the entire range of motion (dynamic range of motion), combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control the range of motion efficiently.
What are some risks associated with poor flexibility?
Muscles and ligaments are shortened due to inactivity and this decreases the body's ability to maintain proper posture, increases the risk for low back pain, join pain and the risk of injury in everyday activities
What are some different techniques for flexibility training? What are their benefits?
-Self myofascial release: focuses on neural syste, and the fascial system/fibrous tissue that surrounds and separates muscle tissue, it reduced pain from latent trigger points and is a method of self massage
-Static stretching: passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding it, elongates and relaxes the muscle improving joint range of motion, decreases the chance of injury, improves posture, improves function prior to activity
-Dynamic stretching: uses force production of a muscle and the body's momentum to take a joint through the full available range of motion, increases heart rate and respiration, increases tissue temperature, reduces tightness and improves performance, delivers oxygen to working muscles
-Yoga and Pilates: yoga is the practice of posture as exercise, good posture leads to proper muscle flexibility and full ranges of motion
Question 1:True or False; Ligaments can be overstretched leading to excessively loose joints increasing the risk of injury.
False ?
Question 2: Poor flexibility leads to all of the following EXCEPT
Decrease risk of injury
Question 3: Flexibility exercises have been prescribed to successfully decrease all of the following EXCEPT
Cardiorespiratory endurance
Question 4: All of the following factors negatively affect flexibility EXCEPT
Question 5: Which form of flexibility gently applies pressure with implements such as foam roll, to stimulate sensory receptors controlled by the nervous system causing the muscle to relax.
Self-Myofascial Release
Question 6: Which form of stretching passively takes a muscle to the point of tension and holds the stretched position for a minimum of 20 to 30 seconds.
Static Stretching
Question 7: Which form of stretching uses the force production of a muscle and the body s momentum to take a joint through the full available range of motion?
Dynamic Stretching
Question 8: Contraindications for dynamic stretching include all of the following EXCEPT
Low Body Fat Percentage
Question 9: Which of the following is a factor for causing rounded shoulders and forward head posture?
Tight Chest and Upper Neck Muscles
Question 10: Which of the following is a factor for causing an arched lower back posture?
Tight hip flexors and weak gluteals
What is the main focus of stabilization training?
to increase the individual's ability to stabilize their joints, spine, and posture during activity, it provides stabilization as well as neuromuscular efficiency. Stability= core and balance.
What are the two methods to improve stability?
-core training: improving ability to properly activate core is vital to improving overall function, hips, pelvis, lower back
-balance training
What is the difference between the stabilization and movement systems? Why is understanding this important?
Stabilization system ensures proper segmental stabilization of each vertebrae of the spring during exercise or activity. It's just the core and muscles close to the spine. Movement system is optimal force production, force reduction, comes after stabilization. They are the larger muscles on the outside that move. It is important to understand this difference to prevent injury and perform activities safely and effectively stabilizing before carrying out movement.
What is the cardiorespiratory/cardiovascular system?
the system provides the tissues of the body with oxygen, nutrients, protective agents, and a means to remove byproducts/waste.
What is the cardiorespiratory/cardiovascular system comprised of
the heart, blood, and blood vessels as well as respiratory pump (sternum, ribs, vertebrae, muscle), and respiratory passageways
Why is cardiorespiratory endurance considered the most important component of physical fitness and the best indicator of overall health?
it is necessary to sustain the energy requirements of a normal life and cr endurance helps maintain body weight. The more fit an individual is the more efficiently oxygen is spread to body, prevents disease
What are F.I.T.T.E. factors?
frequency, intensity, time, type, enjoyment
How is cardio intensity measured? Why is this important to designing a cardio program?
Cardio intensity is measured by heart rate or maximal oxygen consumption, also by perceived exertion/difficulty level, the step test. This is important because you must have a means by which you can measure progress.
Be familiar with the work-out zones and stages of exercise.
1: 65-75% of max heart rate, 9-11 difficulty, 2: 75-85%, 13 difficulty, 3: 85-90 or sometimes 100, perceived as 18.
Question 1:The amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each contraction is defined as
stroke volume
Question 2: The number of times the heart beats per minute combined with how much blood is being pumped with each beat is defined as
cardiac output.
Question 3: Which of the following is considered an anaerobic exercise?
: 100 meter sprint
Question 4: All of the following are benefits of cardiorespiratory exercise EXCEPT
Correct Answer: Increase risk of obesity
Question 5: Benefits of a warm-up include all of the following EXCEPT
Decreased tissue temperature
Question 6: Stage 1 workout consists of a heart rate zone between
65% to 75% of max heart rate
Question 7: All of the following are benefits of a cool-down EXCEPT
Increases heart rate after exercise
Question 8: Which of the following is made up of bones such as the sternum, ribs and vertebrae and muscles, the diaphragm, and abdominals that work with the nervous system to allow for proper respiratory mechanics such as breathing?
Respiratory pump
Question 9: Which of the following transport blood through a network of arteries and veins?
Blood vessels
Question 10: During a Stage 3 workout an individual s heart rate can reach as high as
90% of max heart rate
What is strength, endurance, hypertrophy, etc?
Strength is the ability of the neuromuscular system to provide internal tension and exert force against external resistance.
Hypertrophy: increased muscle mass leads to increase in metabolic rate and ability to burn calories.
Endurance: ability for muscles to work for extended periods of time, important for athletes and for those seeking fat loss.
Maximal strength: the ability to lift heavy loads, not neccessarily with high reps
Power: the ability to generate force quickly
Correct progression for developing strength?
Develop stabilization (muscular edurance and core strength, neuromuscular control), then strength (enhancement, hypertrophy, maximal), then power. Ways to do this: change the exercises, amount of weight used, number of sets/repetitions, rest periods.
Why is strength training important to functional movement
Aerobic exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness, but muscular strength is important for athletic performance and normal activities of daily life such as bending, turning, lifting. Important for overall health and wellbeing.
What are the 3 types of muscle contractions?
Concentric: acceleration, exerts more force than is being placed upon it, muscle shortening occurs while tension is developed to overcome resistance (ex: dumbell biceps curl)
Eccentrlc: deceleration, stabilization, exerts less force than is being placed upon it, muscle lengthening occurs, known as negative, (ex: downward phase of dumbell biceps curl)
Isometric: stabilization, contraction. exerts a force equal to the force placed upon it, considerable force generated without movement, no joint movement. (ex: pause between upward and downward parts of bicep curl)
What are some benefits of strength training
Also it improves bone density decreasing the risk for osteoporosis, decreases risk for diabetes, heart rate and blood pressure decrease, perform everyday activities more efficiently, alter body composition by encouraging weight loss via calorie expenditure, improve self-image, prevent injury by strengthening connective tissues, improves communication between nervous and muscular systems, improves force production, betters dynamic postural control.
Question 1: All of the following are benefits of strength training EXCEPT
Increasing resting heart rate
Question 2: Muscular endurance or the ability for muscles to work for extended periods of time requires lifting ____ weight coupled with a ____ number of repetitions.
light, high
Question 3: Muscle hypertrophy is best defined as:
Increase in muscle size
Question 4: True of False: Hormonal differences between men and women do not allow women to achieve the same amount of hypertrophy?
Question 5: Types of equipment designed to improve one s strength include all of the following EXCEPT
Foam roll
Question 6: In movement, most injuries occur during the ______ phase of movement and should be emphasized in the initial stages of strength training.
Question 7: True or False: Strength is defined as the ability of the neuromuscular system to provide internal tension and exert force against external resistance.
Question 8: True or False: Muscle mass decreases with a sedentary lifestyle which slows down one s metabolism.
Question 9: Strength training can improve performance in all of the following ways EXCEPT
Decreases joint range of motion
Question 10: Which of the following is the proper exercise progression with regards to resistance training exercises?
Stabilization → Strength→ Power
Stress is the body's mental, physical, emotional response to any situation that is new, frightening, threatening, or exciting and therefore disrupts the internal balance or equilibrium of the body. Managing stress is an important step towards behavioral change and improved quality of life. Stress undermines our ability to stay well and is linked to illness and increasing health care costs. It can be beneficial, providing motivation. Positive stress is known as eustress, and sometimes health increases with stress. The body responds to stress with a fight or flight response. The hypothalamus sends hormones via the adrenal glands. Excercise is crucial to controlling stress. Coping is the attempt to manage stress so that it does not define your life. To manage stress it's important to realize that perception is under your control. It can be managed with mind calming procedures, muscle calming procedures, etc (Biofeedback, Yoga, meditation, Visualization, autogenic inhibition).
Eating Disorders
Anorexia, Bulemia, Binge Eating: defined as eating large amounts of food twice a week in short periods of time, or grazing all day.
What are some reasons many people have trouble changing unhealthy lifestyle habits?
Procrastination (often due to a lack of motivation), Preconditioned Cultural Beliefs (we are products of our environments, culture and physical surroundings), Gratification (instant gratification), Risk Complacency (don't worry about the future, I'll cross that bridge when I come to it), Complexity (being overwhelmed by the requirements of daily life), Indifference and Helplessness (the belief that no matter our lifestyle habits, health is predetermined and out of individuals hands), Rationalization (arguing or believing that things are not that bad), Illusions of Invincibility (people who believe they are untouchable).
What are the 5 categories addressed in the process of willful change?
Once you've recognized that you have a problem, the five steps are 1. Stopping Negative Behavior, 2. Preventing Relapse of Negative Behavior, 3. Developing a positive Behavior, 4. Strengthening a Positive Behavior, and 5. Maintaining a Positive Behavior
What are SMART goals?
Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-Specific and they are essential for successful change.
Question 1: True of False: According to the CDC, in 2005 fewer than half the adult population engaged in recommended levels of physical activity.
Question 2: The idea that we are products of our environment, our culture, and physical surroundings is known as
Preconditioned Cultural Beliefs
Question 3: The belief of no matter our lifestyle habits, health is predetermined and out of personal control. In essence health is in our genes, and the way live our lives has no affect is an example of:
Indifference and helplessness
Question 4: The Transtheoretical model includes all of the following stages EXCEPT
Question 5: What is the first stage of the transtheoretical theory?
Precontemplation Stage
Question 6: Successful people are ____ times more likely to make positive life changes
Question 7: SMART goals are essential for motivating behavioral change. The acronym SMART stands for:
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-specific
Question 8: True or False: There is no such thing as good stress.
Question 9: Which of the following techniques involves a systematic process of contracting and relaxing individual muscle groups throughout the body?
Progressive muscle relaxation
Question 10: Which of the following techniques is a form of self-suggestion in which people place themselves in an autohypnotic state using specific exercises to achieve a deep mental and physical state of relaxation?
Autogenic training
Calorie consumption
excess calorie consumption + lack of physical activity lead to obesity, Americans are eating 500 more calories today compared to 30 years ago.
Recommended Intake Percentages
-Women: 655 + (4.3 x weight in pounds) + (4.7 x height in inches) - (4.7 x age in years)
-Men: 66 + (6.3 x weight in pounds) + (12.9 x height in inches) - (6.8 x age in years)
-take these and times by activity level: Sedentary (no exercise, sit at a desk most of the day): BMR x 120 percent (ie. an extra 20% on top of the BMR)
Light Activity (no exercise, on feet during the day, eg. shop work): BMR x 130 percent
Moderately Active (exercise 3 or more days a week for 30 minutes or more): BMR x 140 percent
Highly Active (exercise 5 or more days a week for 30 minutes or more): BMR x 150 percent
What is the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System? What has its data shown over the last 20 years?
A United States health survey that looks at behavioral risk factors, run by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, tracks statistics about obesity. Within the past 20 years there has been a dramatic increase in obesity, only one state had less than 20% prevalence of obesity. 1985= 10-14% obese, 1997= 30% obese, 2006= 66% overweight/obese
How does energy balance relate to weight loss?
energy=calories, calories consumed must = calories burned or weight gain will occur
What does the evidence show regarding high protein/low carbohydrate diets?
high protein/low carb diets are not the most effective way to lose weight. You can drop weight this way but its not long term.
Question 1: In the United States ___ of adults are considered overweight or obese.
Question 2: The increased rate of obesity in America is due to:
Sedentary lifestyle and excess calories consumption
Question 3: The Laws of Thermodynamics, including the Law of Conservation of Energy state that:
Energy can only be transformed from one form to another and cannot be created or destroyed
Question 4: The components of a healthy lifestyle include:
I. Balanced nutrition
II. Exercise every day for at least an hour
III. Eating only low fat foods
IV. Balancing the calories consumed with the calories expended
V. Regular physical activity on most days of the week
I, IV and V
Question 5: Which factors increase the likelihood of overeating?
All of the above
Question 6: Your daily calorie needs are determined by your:
All of the above
Question 7: The laws of nature and energy balance explain why weight increases, decreases or remains stable. Which of the following statements is true?
Weight gain occurs when an individual consumes more calories than they expend.
Question 8: How many calories does one pound of human body fat contain?
Question 9: True of False; Small changes in daily activity can prevent unwanted weight gain.
Question 10: Controlling portion sizes and preventing excessive caloric consumption can be achieved by
Keeping tempting item away