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Coach Moore's Biology Vocabulary
Terms in this set (100)
physical, or nonliving, factor that shapes an ecosystem
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
transfer of energy from food molecules to ATP in the presence of oxygen.
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
basic building blocks of protein molecules
transfer of food energy to ATP energy without the presence of oxygen.
structures that are not the same in form but are used for the same purpose ex: bird wing and fly wing
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
formation of an organism genetically identical to the parent that does not involve the union of sperm and egg.
adenosine triphosphate, high energy molecule that temporarily stores energy to fuel cell processes in the phosphate bonds; mainly produced in the mitochondria.
organism that makes its own food using sunlight or chemicals; producer
prokaryotic single-celled organisms.
a virus that attacks and invades bacterial cells.
Characterizing a body form with a central longitudinal plane that divides the body into two equal but opposite halves
a naming system using both genus and species to denote the scientific name of an organism.
the number and variety of different organisms found within an area.
a regional ecosystem characterized by climate and the dominant form of plant life.
part of the Earth's surface that includes land, water, and atmosphere where living organisms exist.
interactions and conditions of living organisms in ecosystems.
a type of asexual reproduction in which organisms form as an offshoot from the parent.
an adaption in which an animal protects itself against predators by blending in with the environment
a disease caused by uncontrolled cell division.
an organic compound that includes sugars and starches that is the primary source for energy in organisms.
an organism that eats animals for energy.
the maximum number of organisms that the resource base of an ecosystem can support.
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without changing its chemical composition; an enzyme.
the phospholipid bilayer boundary of a cell that controls the import or export of nutrients, gases, water and wastes.
the basic unit of life.
series of events that eukaryotic cells go through such as growth, DNA replication and mitosis.
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
a rigid structure surrounding the cell membrane in cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria; provides support and protection.
process occurring in the mitochondria that produces ATP from carbon-based molecules in the presence of oxygen.
organelle that contains the pigment chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis; found in plant cells, algae and some protists.
one of the two identical parts of a chromosome held at the centromere.
the loosely spiraled form of DNA observed in cellular interphase.
threadlike structure of condensed or tightly spiraled DNA containing genes.
short hairlike structures attached to the cell membrane that help an organism move in water or capture food.
a branching diagram that illustrates the evolutionary relationships between species from simple to more complex body systems.
an organism genetically identical to another organism that is produced from a single cell.
a fully established community of plants and animals.
a heterozygous genotype where alleles are expressed equally, such as blood type.
a group of three mRNA nucleotides that codes for one amino acid.
a relationship between two species where change in one is mirrored by change in the other over time.
a relationship between species where one species benefits and the other is not affected.
all of the different types of populations that live within a defined area.
a relationship where organisms fight for the same resources.
a substance made of two or more elements chemically combined.
a microscope with two or more lenses to increase magnification.
an organism that must acquire energy from another organism.
type of chemical bond when electrons are shared between atoms.
separation of the cytoplasm to form two daughter cells during the later stage of telophase.
an organism such as fungi and bacteria that acquires energy by breaking down organic matter and returning nutrients to the ecosystem.
double stranded nucleic acid found in the nucleus containing the genetic information.
the factor in the experiment that may change; referred to as the responding variable.
movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to one of low concentration.
mating between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits.
having two sets of chromosomes, one egg and one from the sperm; labeled 2n.
enzyme that builds new DNA strands by bonding nucleotides together at the base pairs during replication.
allele that is expressed in a trait when two different alleles are present in the genotype.
all the living and nonliving factors within a specific area.
protein that increases the efficiency of chemical reactions within an organism.
cell with a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
change in genetic inheritance of a species over time.
total elimination of a species from Earth.
the union of a sperm and egg cell.
type of asexual reproduction where the cytoplasm divides forming two identical cells.
whiplike structure found on some cells that is used for locomotion.
sex cell of an organism; egg or sperm.
section of DNA that determines the characteristics of a specific trait.
changes in allele frequencies in small populations.
the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
combination of alleles that determines the traits of an organism.
type of seed plant whose seeds are enclosed in cones.
cell with one set of every chromosome; labeled n.
organism that eats plants for energy.
transfer of genetic material from one generation to the next.
describes the alleles from each parent as different; one is dominant and one is recessive.
maintenance of stable internal conditions within a cell or organism.
body part that is similar in structure in different organisms but has a different function.
describes the alleles from each parent as the same, either both dominant or both recessive.
proposed answer or explanation to a scientific question using evidence.
picture of an individual's chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs from largest to smallest.
sum total of all types of chemical reactions that build up or break down materials that release energy for an organism.
living organism to small to see with the unaided eye.
process that involves two cycles of cell division reducing the diploid number of chromosomes in the new cells by half; process that creates sex cells.
process that involves one cell cycle of cell division creating genetically identical cells.
mating between organisms involving one pair of contrasting traits.
change in the DNA sequence.
conditions and relationships in nature that determine which organisms of a species survive to reproduce.
the role an organism plays in the ecosystem.
an organism that eats both plants and animals for energy.
a membrane-bound structure within eukaryotic cells that supports cell function.
a single-celled or multicellular individual of a species.
diffusion of substances across a membrane without using energy.
physical appearance of an organism based on genetic inheritance.
branching diagram that shows the change in species over time.
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