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Which binds to same site as Ach on nAchR but activates the receptor initially?


Which phase may be inhibited by cholinesterase inhibitors

phase II

Which are cholinesterase inhibitors

neostigmine & pyridostigmine Note: they antagonize neuromuscular blockade (i.e. block breakdown of Ach)

Which has the shortest duration

Note: b/c it's a depolarizing blocker

Which is a longer duration non-depolarizing NMB


Which are the better non-depol b/c they have minimal cardiovascular effects (ie no His release)

vecuronium, pipecuronium, rocuronium,Rapacuronium

What are 3 effects specific to depol blockcade (succinylcholine)

hyperkalemia, myalgia, inc intraocular & intragastric pressure Note: hyperkalemia is rare but potentially fatal cardiac arrest can occur

3 factors altering responses to NMB's

myasthenia gravis, age, burns

Myasthenia gravis (inc or dec) responsiveness to NMB

Note: so give lower dose of NMB

Aminoglycoside antibiotics (enhance or dec) NMB

Note: they do this by dec release of Ach

Succinylcholine is antagonized by ___

non-depolarizing blockers

What are 3 BDZs

Diazepam, lorazepam, clonazepam

Which is long acting that provides spasmolytic effects and muscular relaxant


Which is intermediate acting and a favorite for older pts


Which is used if confined to bed (very strong)


Which is a GABAb agonist


Intrathecal __ is administered for severe spasticity assoc w/ spinal injury (can cause resp depression)


What cause less hypotension than clonidine but hypotension still possible

Note: dry mouth and drowsiness are side effects

What is commonly used to tx back spasms assoc w/ lower back injury or back strain


In Soma, __ is a sedative-hypnotic that has additive effects mixed w/ alcohol

metabolite meprobamate
Note: mixing may result in respiratory depression

What has no central mechanism and works at the sarcoplasmic reticulum


General anesthesia is divided into inhalational and intravenous. Inhalation is divided into halogenated and non-halogenated. The one used today is ___

N20 (non-halogenated)

What are the inhalational agents

-flurane, halothane, N20

IV agents:






BDZ = ___

Others include Ketamine, Etomidate, Propofol

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