38 terms

APES Chapter 5

evolution
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

ecosystem diversity
variety of ecosystems within an area
species diversity
variety of species within an ecosystem
genetic diversity
variety of genes within a species
species richness
number of species within a given area
species evenness
whether an ecosystem is numerically dominated by one organism
evolution
change in genetic composition over time
microevolution
change in genetic composition over time
macroevolution
change in species over time
speciation
creation of a new species
genotype
set of genes
mutation
mistake in copying process by chance
fitness
ability to survive and reproduce
genetic drift
change in genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating
bottle neck population
drastic reduction of population size
founder effect
small number of select individuals colonize new area
geographic isolation
physical barrier separating population thus producing genetic drift
reproductive isolation
when a species becomes so different that they will no longer mate with eachother
genetically modified organisms (gmo)
scientists copy ideal genes and insert them into another organism to produce more organisms with those traits
fundamental niche
set of ideal living conditions for an organism
realized niche
range of abiotic and biotic conditions ind which a species can actually live
species distribution
areas of the world in which a species actually lives
niche generalists
organisms that can live in a variety of habitats and feed on a variety of organisms
niche specialists
must live in a specific area based on food
mass extinction
large number of species dies over a short period of time
sixth mass extinction
the current mass extinction that is occurring today, caused by humans
approximately how many species do scientist think live on earth and why is this estimate difficult to make
roughly 10 million species remain, 1. species intermingle, 2. not all products survive, 3. sizes of organisms can vary from microscopic to huge, 4. new species can be anywhere- including places that we haven't studied much like the bottom of the ocean
how many species have been identified already
2 million
what are the 5 key elements to darwin's theory of natural selection
1. individuals produce an excess of offspring, 2. not all offspring survive, 3. individuals differ in their traits 4. different traits pass on from one generation to another, 5. different traits associated with fitness survive
which type of species does better when the environmental conditions are changing
generalists
which type of species does better when the environmental conditions are stable
specialists
does a species adapt fastest when the rate of environmental change is fast or slow
slow
are populations more likely to survive when the rate of environmental change is fast or slow
slow
do species adapt faster when the genetic variation is high or low
high
are populations are more likely to survive when the genetic variations are high or low
high
do species adapt fastest when their population is is large or small
small
are large or small populations more likely to survive
small
do species adapt fastest when generation time is long or short
short
are populations more likely to survive when generation time is long or short
short