excipients 1

Used in liquid preparations to provide acidic medium for product stability
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Terms in this set (43)
Used to impart color to liquid and solid (e.g., tablets and capsules) preparationscolorant - FD&C Red No. 3Used as a filtering aid for its adsorbent qualitiesclarifying agent - bentoniteUsed to promote and maintain dispersion of finely subdivided particles of liquid in a vehicle in which it is immiscible. End product may be a liquid or semisolid (e.g., a cream)emulsifying agent - acaciaUsed to form thin shells to enclose a drug for ease of administrationEncapsulating agent - gelatinUsed to impart a pleasant flavor and often odor to a preparation. In addition to the natural ones listed, many synthetic ones are usedflavorant - anise oilUsed to prevent drying of preparations, particularly ointments and creamshumectant - glycerinLiquid used as an intervening agent to reduce the particle size of a powder by grinding, usually in a mortarlevigating agent - mineral oilSemisolid vehicle for medicated ointmentsointment base - lanolinComponent of film-coating solutions to make film more pliable, enhance spread of coat over tablets, beads, and granulesplasticizer - diethyl phthalateUsed to dissolve another substance in preparation of a solution; may be aqueous or not (e.g., oleaginous). Cosolvents, such as water and alcohol (hydroalcoholic) and water and glycerin, may be used when needed. Sterile solvents are used in certain preparations (e.g., injections)solvent - alcoholUsed to increase thickness or hardness of a preparation, usually an ointmentStiffening agent - Cetyl alcoholVehicle for suppositoriessuppository base - cocoa butterSubstances that absorb to surfaces or interfaces to reduce surface or interfacial tension. May be used as wetting agents, detergents, or emulsifying agentssurfactant (surface active agent) - benzalkonium chlorideViscosity-increasing agent used to reduce sedimentation rate of particles in a vehicle in which they are not soluble; may be formulated for oral, parenteral, ophthalmic, topical, or other routesuspending agent - agarUsed to impart sweetness to a preparationsweetening agent - aspartamePrevent tablet ingredients from sticking to punches and dies during productionTablet antiadherents - magnesium stearateInert filler to create desired bulk, flow properties, and compression characteristics of tablets and capsulestablet and capsule diluent - dibasic calcium phosphateTablet coating agentUsed to coat a tablet to protect against decomposition by atmospheric oxygen or humidity To provide a desired release pattern, to mask taste or odor, or for aesthetic purposes. Coating may be sugar, film or thick covering around a tablet. Sugar-coated tablets generally start to break up in the stomach. Film forms a thin cover around a formed tablet or bead. Unless it is enteric, film dissolves in the stomach. Enteric coating passes through the stomach to break up in the intestines. Some water-insoluble coatings (e.g., ethylcellulose) are used to slow the release of drug in the gastrointestinal tract.Sugar coatingliquid glucosefilm coatinghydroxyethyl celluloseenteric coatingcellulose acetate phthalateUsed in direct compression tablet formulationstablet direct compression excipient - dibasic calcium phosphate (ditab)Used in solid forms to promote disruption of the mass into smaller particles more readily dispersed or dissolvedtablet disintegrant - alginic acidUsed in tablet and capsule formulations to improve flow properties of the powder mixturetablet glidant - colloidal silicaUsed in tablet formulations to reduce friction during tablet compressiontablet lubricant - calcium stearateUsed to render a coating opaque. May be used alone or with a coloranttablet/capsule opaquant - titanium oxideUsed to impart an attractive sheen to coated tabletstablet polishing agent - carnauba waxUsed to render solution similar in osmotic-dextrose characteristics to physiologic fluids, e.g., in ophthalmic, parenteral, and irrigation fluidstonicity agent - sodium chloridevehicleCarrying agent used in formulating a variety of liquids for oral and parenteral administration.Generally, oral liquids are aqueous (e.g., syrups) or hydroalcoholic (e.g., elixirs). Solutions for intravenous use are aqueous, whereas intramuscular injections may be aqueous or oleaginousFlavored, sweetened vehicleacacia syrupoleaginous vehiclecorn oilsterile vehicleBacteriostatic sodium chloride injectionUsed to render preparations more resistant to flow. Used in suspensions to deter sedimentation, in ophthalmic solutions to enhance contact time (e.g., methylcellulose), to thicken topical creams, etc.viscosity-increasing agent - alginic acid