Took place from 1789 till 1799, where people revolted against the French monarchy.
What was Hispañola?
The island in the Caribbean were Haiti is located.
What was Saint Domingue?
Western half of the Island of Hispañola. Now a days Haiti. Most profitable slave colony in the world.
Who where to leaders of the Haitian Revolution?
Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessaline. Both former slaves & Petion and Christophe
Who were the gens de coleur?
Free colored people who owned land. There were about 28-30,000 of them in Saint Domingue.
Who were the Grand Blancs?
White elites, mostly plantation owners. There where 40,000 of them in Saint Domingue
Who were the Petit Blancs?
Whites under the Gens de Couleur.
How many slaves where there in Saint Domingue?
What was 500,000?
The number of slaves in Saint Domingue
How may free men of color where there in Saint Domingue?
28-30,000 free non-whites.
What number was 28-30,000?
The population of free men of color.
How many whites where there in Saint Domingue?
What was 40,000 (population)?
The white population of Saint Domingue.
When did the Haitian Revolution begin?
August 1791 with first slave uprising in the North
What was 40,000 (war)?
The amount of troops sent with Charles Leclerc to take back island from Toussaint L'Ouverture after he named himself governor for life.
What was Santo Domingo?
Easter side of Hispañola island and a Spanish colony.
Who was Vincent Ogé?
Free man of color who returned to Haiti in 1790 from France, got Enlightenment ideas. He was the first leader of the slave revolts starting in 1790.
Why did Vincent Ogé revolt?
Because the governor of Saint Domingue ignored that all proprietors where active citizens
When did Vincent Ogé revolt?
In 1790 OCTOBER
What Vincent Ogé's revolt successful?
What happened when Ogé's revolt was unsuccessful?
Ogé was captured and executed.
Who was Boukman Dutty?
He was a voodoo priest in Haiti. Haitian slave who conducted a ceremony in which freedom was assured.
What did Boukman Dutty's sermon cause?
A Slave uprising in August 1791, in the Northen part of Saint Domingue.
Who lead the sermon that caused the slave uprising in August 1791?
When was the slave uprising by Dutty?
Who was Sonthonax?
French Commissioner who abolished slavered in Haiti in 1793. He was a french abolitionist in control of 7,000 French troops in Saint Domingue. Sent with 7,000 troops to control slave uprising after first slave revolt in August 1791.
When was the Legislative Assembly founded?
What was the Legislative Assembly?
Founded in April 1792, gave full citizen ship to all free people of color
What did the Legislative Assembly do?
It have all free people of color full citizenship. 1792
Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture?
Leader of the Haitian Revolution and fought for equality. Was gifted in Military and turned the slave society into an independent black state. He switched alliances between Spain to France according to convenience, then turned to slave side. Died of malnutrition in France after being captured by Napoleon when he discovered T.L. named himself governor of Haiti for life.
Who was the main leader of the Haitian Revolution?
Toussaint L'Ouverture. The former slave.
How did Toussaint L'Ouverture die?
Died of malnutrition in a prison in France
Who did Toussaint L'Ouverture joint to fight with in May 1794?
With the French.
When did Toussaint L'Ouverture join the French?
In May 1794
What does Toussaint L'Ouverture do in 1801.
Institutes a Constituion. Declares himself governor for life.
When did Toussaint L'Ouverture make a Constitution?
When did Toussaint L'Ouverture name himself governor for life?
Did Toussaint L'Ouverture want independence from France?
How does Napoleon feel about Toussaint L'Ouverture being governor.
Not happy because he looses 500,000 slaves and colony becomes less profitable.
What does Napoleon do after Toussaint L'Ouverture declares himself governor?
He sends Charles Leclerc (brother in law) with 40,000 troops to take back the island from Toussaint L'Ouverture.
How many troops where sent to take back the island after Toussaint L'Ouverture became governor?
Who was sent with 40,000 troops to take back the island from Toussaint L'Ouverture?
Napoleon's brother in law, Charles Leclerc.
When was Charles Leclrec sent to Saint Domingue?
Which of Toussaint L'Ouverture's man joined Leclerc?
Jean Jacques Dessalines
Who was Jean Jacques Dessalines?
One of Toussaint L'Ouverture's right hand man who switched to fight with Leclerc. Later he became a leader of the Haitian Revolution. Former slave.
How does Charles Leclerc Capture Toussaint L'Ouverture?
He tricks him into thinking they are going to get to an agreement and sends him back to France.
How is Toussaint L'Ouverture captured?
Charles Leclrer tricks him into thinking that they will negotiate and sends him back to France.
Who took charge of rebel army after Toussaint L'Ouverture was captured?
What law does Napoleon sing in May 1802?
One that reinstates slavery where it has not disappeared.
What happens in May 1802
Napoleon signs law that reinstates slavery where i has not disappeared.
What did Napoleon tell his brother in law about reinstating slavery.
To reinstate it when the time was right. in 1802
Why did Dessaline take up arms against Leclerc?
He found out that other island around La Hispañola had slavery reinstated by the French.
How did Leclerc die?
From the yellow fever.
What was the yellow fever?
Virus spread by fever mosquito, fatal.
When did the yellow fever arrive?
Around the time Dessaline and Leclerc where fighting. 1802
How many troops did Leclerc loose to the yellow fever?
How many of Leclerc's troops where affected by the yellow fever.
32,000. 24,000 died 8,000 very wounded
Who was Rochambeua?
French leader who replaced Leclerc who died from yellow fever.
Who replaced Leclerc after dying from the yellow fever?
How did Rochambeau unify the slaves and free men of color?
They had a common fear of him.
What does Rochambeau ask Napolean?
He asks for reinforcement in order to defeat Dessaline. But Napoleon ignores him.
Does Napoleon aid Rochambeau when he needs resources?
Whats one reason that Napolean ignores Rochambeau?
He has Napoleonic wars in Europe.
What does Napoleon do to raise funds for his wars in Europe?
He sells the Territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars. or 60 million francs
Why does Napoleon sell Louisiana in 1803?
To fund his wars in Europe
How much did Napolean sell Louisiana for?
15 million dollars at the time or 60 million francs.
Why is Dessaline able to beat Rochambeau?
Because Rochambeau was ignored by Napoleon and didn't have enough resources.
What does Dessaline do after defeating Rochambeau?
He declares independence for Saint Domingue in Januery 1st of 1804
Who declares Saint Domingue's independence?
When does Saint Domingue declare its independence?
In January 1st of 1804
What does Dessaline name Saint Domingue after declaring its independence?
Was Haiti economically well after declaring its independence?
Did the French recognize Haiti's independence when it was declared?
No it was only recognized in 1825.
When was Haiti's Independence recognized by the French?
What happened to Haiti while it wasn't recognized by France.
France wasn't allowing it to trade.
How much debt did Haiti owe France?
150 million Francs. but paired 90 mill
When was the debt to France paid off?
Why did Haiti owe France 90 million francs of debt.
For property loss. (land and slaves).
What was the population in Haiti after the Revolution.
How many black deaths were there?
100,000 deaths of blacks
How many white deaths were there?
10,000 white deaths
How French troops died?
60,000 french troops died.
What happened to Dessaline after the Haitian Revolution?
Desaline was assassinated in October 17 of 1806
Who was Henry Christophe?
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. Captured santo domingo (took part) He governed the Kingdom of the North of the Island after the Island split. in 1811.
How did Christophe die?
He got a stroke and then killed himself after having sex with a man.
Who was Petion?
He was elected president of the Southern Pepublic part of the Island after the country split.
When did Petion die?
Who was Boyer.
A leader of the Haitian Revolution, President of Haiti After Christophe and Petion. Reunited North and South.
What was the Rural code of 1826
It was made by President Boyer, influenced by the french law and it had codes of criminal and civil laws. The rural population had limited rights. Women were under father or brother.
What did Boyer try restore?
The Plantation system.
Who was Abbe Raynal?
French Enlightenment writer. TL read lots of his work and got ideas from him to add to the revolution. His most famous piece was "A history of the Two Indies"
Who wrote "A History of the Two Indies"
Who was Julien Raymond.
Writer of philosophical pamphlets what where distributed during the revolution. Wrote Progress of prejudice...
Who wrote pamphlets that were distributed during the revolution?
Who was Pierre Baptiste
TL's Godfather who educated him.
Who was TL's Godfather?
Who was Diderot?
French philosopher who helped write "A Hisotry of the Two Indies"
Who was John R. Beard.
French person who wrote TL's life.
"Societe Amis de Noirs"
Supporting slave cause
Who wrote "gentlemen a prejudice too long..."
What happened in 1697?
Under terms of Treaty of Ryswick, western side of Hispanola was given to the French.
What happened in 1789?
The French Revolution
What happened in 1790?
Vincent Ogé leads revolt.
What happened in 1791?
Haitian Revolution starts with slave uprising in August.
What happened in 1792?
Legislative Assembly giving all colored free men citizenship. APRIL
What happened in 1793?
Sonthonax abolishes slavery in Saint Domingue (August). France goes back to war with Great Britain.
What happened in 1794?
Toussaint L'Ouverture joins the French (May). And is against Spain.
What happened in 1798?
British leave Haitian territory
What happened in 1801.
Toussaint L'Ouverture makes a Constitution and declares himself governor for life.
What happens in 1802?
Charles Leclrec is sent by Napoleon to take back the island. Napoleon signs law that reinstates slavery where it has not completely disapeared. (May) JULY, Toussaint L'Ouverture captured
What happened in 1804?
Dessaline declares Saint Domingue' independence in January 1st 1804.
What happened in 1806?
Dessaline was killed. October 17
What happened in 1825?
The French recognized Haiti's Independece
What happened in 1947
Haiti paid its 90 million francs of debt to France.
When does france go back to war with Great Britain?
What was the mayor cash crop in Saint Domingue?
Sugar, the sugar cane.
What was the mayor religion in Haiti?
Who was the first person to revolt in the Haitian revolution?
Vincent Ogé in 1790, failed and executed.
When was the French Revolution?
What was the Treaty of Ryswick?
Giving western side of hispanola to France.
When was Dessaline assassinated?
October 17 of 1806.
What was the name if he French government that freed the slaves ?
The national convention
When the national convention free the slaves?
What was the national convention?
The French government that freed the slaves in 1794