49 terms

Political Geography

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Balkanization
when a political landscape goes from a larger state to several smaller states. ( The Soviet Union's fall; Yugoslavia)
Antecedent Boundary
boundary lines that exist from prehistoric times. (French-Spanish border along the Pyrenees; 49th parallel)
Relic Boundary
former state boundaries that still have political or cultural meaning. (Eastern/Western Germany)
Subsequent Boundary
lines resulting from conflict or cultural changes such as war and migration. ( German/Polish after 1945)
Superimposed Boundary
lines laid down for political reasons over top cultural boundaries. (Sub-Saharan Africa following the Berlin Confrence)
Definition
When borders are claimed negotiated, or captured
Delimitation
When borders are put on the map.
Demarcation
when markers are placed on the ground to show where borders lay.
Physical boundaries
boundaries created with naturally occurring features--rivers, lakes, oceans, mountains, or deserts.
Cultural boundaries
estimated boundaries between nations, ethnic groups, or tribes.
Geometric boundaries
boundaries surveyed along lines of latitude and longitude.
Definitional dispute
when border treaties are interpreted two different ways by states.
Locational dispute
when the border moves, like a rive changing course of a like drying up.
Operational dispute
when borders are agreed to, but passage across the border is a problem.
Allocational dispute
when a resource lies on two sides of a border: Who gets what?
Centrifugal Forces
are factors that tear apart the social and political fabric of a stat. (A centrifuge separates blood into different parts)
Centripetal Forces
are factors that hold together the social and political fabric of the state. ( Pedals make the bike go).
Colonialism
The practice of establishing political dominance over another people for economic, political, and territorial gain.
Exclusive Economic Zone
Exclusive economic rights from shore out to the 200-nautical-mile limit. Within 200 nautical miles of its shores, a state controls all aspects of natural resource exploration and extraction.
Enclave
a minority culture group concentrated inside a country that is dominated by a different, larger culture group. This could be as simple as an ethnic neighborhood or a large area like Quebec.
Exclave
a fragmented piece of sovereign territory separated by land from the main part of the state's territory. Kaliningrad is an ____ of Russia.
Gerrymandering
the redrawing of political boundaries for political gain by one of the major political powers. ________ is an illegal activity.
Sir Halford Mackinder
a British politcal geographer who outlined the Heartland theory.
The Heartland Theory
suggests that whoever owns Eastern Europe and Western Asia has the political power and capital to rule the world.
The Rimland theory
believes that forming alliances is necessary to keep the Heartland in check. Because the Heartland is so powerful, no individual country can contain it by itself.
Irredentism
the attempt by one country to infuse ideas of coups or separatist movements into another country. when a minority ethnic group desires to break away from a multi-ethnic state and form its own nation-state, or break away and align itself with a culturally similar state.
Nation
a population with a single culture (England, Scotland)
Nation-State
a single culture under a single government (Japan, Iceland, Tonga, Ireland, Portugal, Lesotho)
Feudalism
political economies operated with the vast majority of land and wealth being controlled by an artistocracy--a peerage of lords, earls, marquis, barons, dukes, princes, kings and queens.
Constitutional Monarchy
the supreme aristocrat remains head of state, but the leader of he elected parliament is the head of government, with integrated legislative and executive powers. In most cases this is a Prime Minister, who appoints senior members of parliament to be ministers or secretaries of executive-branch department.
House of Lords
the upper house of parliament, which also serves as the supreme court
House of Commons
the lower house of parliament.
Commonwealth
territories that have established a mutual agreement for the benefit of both parties. They are independent former parts of the British Empire that retain the British Monarch as their head of state.
Free-Market Democracy
this system relies upon balancing the relationship between the elected representative government, its citizens, and business interest.
Republics
free of aristocracy of monarchical control. The governments are fully under the control of the "common " people , as opposed to hereditary monarchy.
Theocracy
a country where one particular religion is intertwined with the political structure.
Communism
one of the main goals of Marxism, also know as _____, was to create a class-free society where there where no inequalities in terms of wealth or power.
Sovereignty
when states regulate their own internal and external affairs.
State
a population under a single government
Stateless nation
where a cultural group is not included or allowed share in the state political process. (Kurds, Basques, Hmong)
Supranationalism
the concept of two or more sovereign states aligned together for a common purpose. (EU, OPEC, UN, FAO, UNICEF)
Compact
shape without irregularity (Nigeria, Colorado)
Fragmented
broken into pieces, archipelagos (Philippines, Newfoundland)
Elongated
appears stretched out, long (Chile, Tennessee)
Prorupt
Has a panhandle or peninsula (Italy, Michigan)
Perforated
has a hole completely inside its borders. This hole can be a country or a large lake. ( South Africa, Utah)
Landlocked
has no sea or ocean borders (Swiss, Wyoming)
Territorial Sea
sovereign territory includes the area of sea from shore out to the 12-nautical-mile limit. Within 12 nautical miles all the laws of a country apply.
Terrorism
planned violent attacks on people and places to provoke fear and cause a change in government policy.