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Terms in this set (73)

1. Positivist:
-has been the dominant philosophy of science
-few common elements are pursuit of objectivity and value-free neutrality in research, an ultimate goal of understanding cause and effect relationships, hypothesis resting with control of extraneous factors to clarify cause and effect, and measurement as the source of data. Positivist science seeks to construct generalized laws, based on research findings, applicable to many circumstances

2. Postpositvist:
-knowledge is built through shared understanding, using rigourous methods and standards of the scientific community
-recognize that no researcher is truly objective yet seek to reduce biases and build shared understandings as much as possible. Adapt exerpimental methods, hynothesis testing, and psychological measurement to community settings

3. Constructivist:
- (contextualist or postmodernist) take a different approach
-knowledge is created collaboratively in relationships between reserachers and participants
-instead of pursuing the ideal of value-free objectivity, assume that knowing occurs in a relationship and is a product of a social connection between researcher and researcher participant
-this emphasis on knowing through connection, collaboration, and mutual understanding , and understanding contexts, meanings, and lived experience of participants; qualitative methods.. feminist studies use.. (ex. What having schizo means for the person and their family)

4. Critical philosophies:
-knowledge is shaped by power relationships created and maintained by social institutions and belief systems
-they ask questions about who has the power to state what is true, and who is able to deine the nature of research relationships
-emphasis is placed on integrating research and action, attending to unheard voices, and challenging injustice using a variety of methods
1. Normative
-Existence of standards or criterion established by custom, authority or general consensus against which quantity or quality of a situation or condition is measured
-Work with existing data
Generates objective targets
-Need levels change as knowledge, technology and values change
-some standard set by customs.. this amount of green space per 1000 people.. 10-12 acres... anyone that falls below... has a normative need..
-could come from a custom that everyone lives in their own house
-could be cultural.. or set by federal government
-our norm is every class has a desk.. not a government thing.. but we have all desks..
-you can establish need by looking at the norms.. of what others have.. same type of population..

2. Perceived
-Need defined by what people think or feel about their needs
-Allows for responsive service delivery
-Interviews, focus groups, town meetings
-Standard changes with each respondent
-could get normative or perceived need form interviews

3. Expressed
-Need defined by the number of people who have actually sought help
-Focuses on circumstances in which feeling is translated to action
-Waiting list for services
-Long Lines.. when service offered.. more people come than can actually service

4. Relative
-Gap between level of services existing in one community and those existing in similar communities or geographic areas
-Must consider differences in population and social pathology
-Concerned with equity-schools districts.. all kids have ipads.. there is a relative need...
-in relation to you.. there is a need