-Bronfenbrenner (1979) promoted concept of a model of interlocking circles, demonstrating the overlapping sources of influence on child development.
-CP uses similar idea, but focuses on the community, not just the individual.
-Reciprocal influence across level.
-Engage multiple levels simultaneously.
-Interventions can build individual capacity to address problems.
-Environments where person repeatedly engages in direct, personal interaction.
-More than the sum of their members.
-Potential sources of support or stress.
-Settings that have a formal structure & stature (e.g., mission, by-laws, policies).
-May "host" several microsystems.
-Can have power dynamics and informal "culture."
-Vary in amount of resources.
-Consist of many organizational entities working to define and address problems.
-History & culture are important.
-May host movements that transcend organizational boundaries.
-Multiple simultaneous systems.
-Influence other levels of analysis through policies, legislation, social norms, etc.
-Influenced by consumer choice, advocacy, etc.
-Can reach globally.
1. Distal processes: which are broader in scope and indirectly affect individuals
- Neighborhood characteristics associated with individual problems.
• "At risk": about situation, not a person.
- Important to define problem at appropriate level of analysis.
2. Proximal processes: which affect individuals more directly and immediately
-Pollution, traffic noise, lead exposure
- Lack resource access (e.g., healthy foods, adequate housing).
- Neighborhood Disorder
• Physical - broken windows, litter, graffiti
• Social - crime, isolation, lack of trust
- Affect health, relationships, use of resources.
-has been the dominant philosophy of science
-few common elements are pursuit of objectivity and value-free neutrality in research, an ultimate goal of understanding cause and effect relationships, hypothesis resting with control of extraneous factors to clarify cause and effect, and measurement as the source of data. Positivist science seeks to construct generalized laws, based on research findings, applicable to many circumstances
-knowledge is built through shared understanding, using rigourous methods and standards of the scientific community
-recognize that no researcher is truly objective yet seek to reduce biases and build shared understandings as much as possible. Adapt exerpimental methods, hynothesis testing, and psychological measurement to community settings
- (contextualist or postmodernist) take a different approach
-knowledge is created collaboratively in relationships between reserachers and participants
-instead of pursuing the ideal of value-free objectivity, assume that knowing occurs in a relationship and is a product of a social connection between researcher and researcher participant
-this emphasis on knowing through connection, collaboration, and mutual understanding , and understanding contexts, meanings, and lived experience of participants; qualitative methods.. feminist studies use.. (ex. What having schizo means for the person and their family)
4. Critical philosophies:
-knowledge is shaped by power relationships created and maintained by social institutions and belief systems
-they ask questions about who has the power to state what is true, and who is able to deine the nature of research relationships
-emphasis is placed on integrating research and action, attending to unheard voices, and challenging injustice using a variety of methods
-what are available resources?
-systems can be understood by examining how resources are used, distributed, conserved, and transformed.. how resources used and where.. and how can we re-use... organziations go to.. technological resources.. how do all work together?
-what resoucres visible? And what haven't been tapped into? Look for resources that are latent.. if you haven't pulled all aspects of something.. may not know its there.. in community pscyh not tapping into creative abilities.. but if someone does have creative abilities.. they could be a resource
-personal, social, and physical resources
-social settings have many more resoucres than are commonly recognized. Harnessing under-utilized resources can be a key intervention
a. Any system can be understood by examining how resources are used, distributed, conserved, and transformed
b. Community psyc interested in how settings members define and exchange resources
c. Personal resources: individual talents, knowledge, experiences, strengths, or other qualities that can address challenges in a setting
d. Social Resources: occur in relationships and in settings.. with shared beliefs and values.. .. each physical aspect of a setting are resources.. study room in library ..
e. Kelly's approach is to search any environment (family, organization, or neighborhood) for resources (tangible or intangible) that can contribute to individual or system well being
1.Race is socially constructed, it is not simply ethnicity, it is socially defined based on physical criteria
2.Ethnicity is "Socially defined on the basis of cultural criteria" such as language, national origin, customs, and values, having little to do with physical appearance
-social identity, based on one's ancestry or culture of origin, as modified by the culture in which one currently resides. (Greek term ethnos) referring to tribe or nationality. Defined by language, customs, values, social ties, and other aspects of subjective culture