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Chapters 36 (1), 37, 38

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PLAY
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another.
Mukden Incident
Japanese troops blew up part of the Japanese-built South Manchuria Railway and blamed it on the Chinese.
Infrastructure
The stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area.
Cash Crop
A crop that is grown and gathered to be sold for proifit. (vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
Diego Rivera
Famous Mexican artist who studied in Europe and blended artistic and political visions into his murals.
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries.
Sweetheart Treaties
Guaranteed US financial control in the Caribbean economies of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region.
Lazaro Cardenas
Mexican President nationalized the oil industry, much of which was controlled by foreign investors.
Rape of Nanjing
Nanjing, in China, where Japanese soldiers raped thousands of women, murdered hundreds of unarmed people, and burned homes.
Treaty of Non-Aggression
Soviet Union and Germany signed this to which they agreed to not attack each other and provided neutrality in the event that either of them went to war with a third party.
Blitzkreig
"lightening war" used by Germans to invade Poland.
Lebensraum
Jews, Slavs, and Bolsheviks could be exterminated in order to create more "living space" for the Germans.
RAF (Royal Air Force)
Forced Hitler to abandon plans to invade Britain during the Battle of Britain.
Operation Barbarossa
Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II -- led to USSR joining the Allies.
Lend-Lease
Act in which the United States gave supplies and whatever else necessary to the Allies during WWII (March 1941)
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Island-Hopping
The American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
Kamikaze
Means "divine wind" in Japanese that is related to the storms that destroyed Mongol invasion fleets. Later in WW2, it was the name for suicide pilots.
Final Solution
The German goal of killing all European Jews.
Wannsee Conference
A meeting in which the "Final solution" and use of concentration camps were decided in 1942, Heydrich was the chief executor of the "Final Solution". Held in Wannsee, Berlin
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Iron Curtain
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region.
Truman Doctrine
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey.
Containment
United States would contain the spread of communism.
Marshall Plan
Originally the European Recovery Plan, that offered financial and other economic aid to all European states that had suffered from WW2.
COMECON
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, which offered increased trade within the Soviet Union and eastern Europe; it was the Soviet alternative to the US's Marshall Plan.
NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, established by the United Nations in 1949 as a regional military alliance against Soviet Union.
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO.
Berlin Airlift
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city.
Berlin Wall
A wall built in 1961 dividing Soviet controlled East Berlin from the democratic West Berlin, later was destroyed.
SEATO
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand.
Domino Theory
The political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Kwame Nkrumah
Founder of Ghana's independence movement and Ghana's first president.
Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
McCarthyism
Act of making accusations of disloyalty without much evidence.
Marshall Tito
Communist leader of Yugoslavia.
Jiang Jieshi
Chinese nationalist leader that was against Mao; supported by the US; loss to Mao, so he and his followers fled to Taiwan.
Mao Zedong
Became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
Detente
French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's superpowers during the Cold War.
SALT
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty between the US and Soviet Union.
Taliban
Fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda.
Velvet Revolution
A peaceful protest by the Czech people that led to the smooth end of communism in Czechoslovakia.
Appeasement
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Potsdam
The place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Atlee, met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender.
Comfort Women
Served as prostitutes to the Japanese soldiers.
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927).
Ghetto
A restricted quarter of many European cities in which Jews were required to live; awful living conditions.
Concentration Camp
A camp where prisoners of war, political prisoners, or members of minority groups are confined, typically under harsh conditions.
Extermination Camp
A Nazi facility where victims were killed on a mass industrialized scale and their bodies burned or buried in mass graves.