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305 ch 3 & 4
Terms in this set (41)
The earliest written accounts of sporting activities in Ancient Greece are provided in which texts?
The Iliad and the odyssey
Ionian Enchantment thinkers like Thales of Miletus believed that the natural world was governed by _______________________.
Identify and describe the six branches of philosophy.
1. Metaphysics: study of the nature of things. What are the defining features of a given action or object?
2. Epistemology: study of knowledge. How does one know something is true?
3. Ethics: study of right actions. What should a person do?
4. Aesthetics: study of beauty. What is beautiful?
5. Logic: study of reasoning. Is a given line of reasoning valid?
6. Axiology: study of value. What is the good life?
In what ways were the athletic festivals of Ancient Greece connected to religion?
All four festivals were dedicated to a Greek god and held in a religious sanctuary
The oldest and most important of the Panhellenic festivals were the _______________________ Games.
How did chrematitic ("valuable-prize") festivals widen social access to sport in Greece?
They were held locally for male members of the community to compete. In winning, the working class athletes won money and status which allowed them to dedicate themselves to training to become better athletes.
By hosting the Olympic Games every four years, Athens emerged as the most important city-state of Ancient Greece.
What types of events were featured at the Olympic Games? How did the Olympic program evolve over time?
For the first fifty-two years the Olympic Games hosted a single event: a 200m sprint. As the Olympics evolved, more events were added like: wrestling, boxing, chariot racing, combat, and horseback riding. The Olympic program evolved from modest games to an event pilgrims would travel over land and sea to attend. Gymnasium, banquet halls, and facilities developed.
The _______________________ was a temporary truce between city-states that guaranteed safe passage for athletes and spectators traveling to and from Olympia.
In what ways did sport reflect the broader social inequalities of Ancient Greece?
Banned anyone who was not a Greek man from attending
True or False: The athletes of Ancient Greece were gentlemen-amateurs who did not receive money or prizes for their sporting feats.
What sources of evidence do we have of sport in Ancient Greece? Why is it important to apply critical standards when assessing it?
Written and material evidence. To assure it's factual
Athletic facilities like the _______________________ and the _______________________ were among the defining features of city-states across the ancient Greek world.
Gymnasium and palaestra
Who were the paidotribai? What social functions did they serve within the city-states of Ancient Greece?
the salaried physical educators of Ancient Greece. First kinesiologists
True or False: The schools established by the philosophers Plato and Aristotle illustrate the fusion of Greece's intellectual education and physical education.
The Spartan _______________________ was a strict, regimented program of physical education.
What are some examples of "architectural marvels of the ancient world" that were dedicated to sport and physical activity?
Luck Romani, circus Maximus, the colosseum, and the mesoamerican ball courts
"Mesoamerican cultures played these games for the same reasons that most traditional societies have engaged in sporting contests—_____________________________________________________________________."
For fun and amusement, to demonstrate prowess and as a component of religion
What were the similarities and differences between the Mesoamerican and Roman spectacles?
Differences: Amount and type of stadium. Amount and types of games. Competitors came from different sectors of population
similarities: sport incorporated religious meaning, executions, violence, spectatorship, gambling
Various groups opposed the gladiatorial contests in Rome. Who were they? On what grounds did they oppose the games?
Greeks opposed the games because many people they knew were forced to participate. Early Christians opposed the games bc it was a misuse of God's creation. Some Roman citizens, like philosophers, opposed the games on account of their barbarism, and gladiators themselves opposed the games.
Philosophers who believe that values and other intangibles can be identified by those who reflect carefully and skillfully are called _____________.
Those who believe, on the other hand, that reflection produces no such valid outcomes include _________________ and __________________.
Relativists and nominalists
The authors argue that they are "epistemological optimists." Define this term and explain how an epistemological optimist would think about the ethics of brutality.
They believe that values and ethics can be tangible and objective but moral claims cannot be proven.
"Our tentative conclusions are that ethical insight is _____________, that our ethical knowledge has ______________over time, and that we can be reasonably ___________________that we have identified at least some characteristics of the ________________."
Possible, improved, confident, good life
Steven Pinker argues that there has been a "civilizing process" throughout history. What does he mean by this?
Throughout history we have become better at regulating our impulses if not kinder, better people.
True or False: In particular, the need to train warriors to defend empires against attacks, whether from inside or outside of China, produced well-organized agonistic contests and disciplines designed for combat training.
Chinese martial arts
Japanese martial arts
Korean martial arts
Japanese sport in horseback
Game for Afghanistan in which mounted warriors compete to commandeer a headless goat carcass
Games of the romans
mock naval battles
Romans who volunteered to be gladiators
True or False: Roman citizens often did not fight to death in the munera ; instead, they made their vanquished enemies, their convicted criminals, and their degraded slaves serve as the ludiones in these dramas.
What happened to the games after the collapse of the Roman Empire?
Slowly became extinct as theodosius and rulers after him banned all pagan festivals
What are some examples of the religions and intellectual opposition to the martial sports in the European Middle Ages and Chinese culture?
Catholic Church sought to ban martial sports that resulted in wounds and death. Chinese philosophers eschewed fierce contests and violent pastimes.
List and describe four differences btw eastern and western sport
1. Purpose of sport - western sport wanted the victory and to be the best of the best, eastern sport wanted to develop new insights and harmonize with the opponent
2. Relationships btw strategies and actions - western sport conceptualists the movement, then executed, eastern viewed thinking and acting as one whole piece
3. Views of the opponent - western sport viewed the opponent as a hindrance and enemy, eastern saw the opponent as continuous with themselves
4. Meanings related to winning and losing - western sport only cares about the win, eastern sport sees defeat and victory as continuous
Peasant sport and festivals were consistently seen through the world from 1500 BCE to 1500 CE. What are some examples?
Sports involving animals
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