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USH Chapter 1 Test: Colonies
Terms in this set (29)
every setting on earth has a set of characteristics (physical and unique) that makes it unique
ex. land and water formations, plants and animals, kinds of people who live there, cultures
area that is defined according to one or more characteristics
ex. cultural differences, types of human activity, industry, climate, plants and animals
Human Environment Interaction
dependent on environment
ex. food, fresh water, resources
things relocating from one place to another/temporary and permanent ex. movement of goods, ideas, info
where something is on earth
(location) longitude and latitude
(location) compare to the location to other things
Long-believed theory: Beringia land bridge (12,000 years ago)
Recent theories: island hopping to south America, preceding the Vikings' journey from Europe
How did Native peoples get there?
-large-scale agricultural systems
-large permanent cities with specialized occupations
-clear class distinctions
-organized government system
-complex military and commercial practices
-organized writing system
Characteristics of Civilization
They had advanced weaponry, horses, more people, larger livestock, and better location for agriculture and trade
Why were the Europeans considered more civilized?
They plundered native populations and established missions to Christianize
this was made possible by horses, disease, better weapons and military tactics
What did the Conquistadors do and what made it possible?
there was no permanent settlement in FL
Where did the Spanish settle in North America?
there were few to no permanent settlers (Midwest, Mississippi basin)
Where did the French settle in North America?
they were interested only in economic gain (plunder native villages, spread Christianity)
What did the Spanish do in North America?
they established friendly connections with natives, traded (furs), and missionary activities
What did the French do in North America?
Jamestown and Plymouth Rock
What were the first 2 colonies?
conflict over land with natives, fights breaking out
What were some difficulties of the first 2 colonies?
Why did Jamestown succeed?
Why did Plymouth succeed?
permanent large numbers (religious-New England), cash crop agriculture (not in and out mindset), private farming from Joint Stock Companies/land grant, made up of middle/lower class and criminals, diverse economy, money came from sponsors (not state)
How did English colonial activities differ from other countries?
Gold, God, Glory
Why did Englishmen come to the New World?
1. Persecution in England increased by King Charles
2. Separatists and Puritans
-Pilgrims go the the New World to practice religion in peace (Great Migration). The Puritans persecute the non-Puritans
Role of Religion (Winthrop's City Upon a Hill).
Spanish settlers eager to spread Christianity
Limited to southwest because no one could travel without official permission, goods could not be imported, and Spanish imperialism controlled everything
colonists hired by the Virginia Compony/John Smith, fertile land and greed created a really bad situations so land was sold and cultivated at the expense of slaves, slavery spread through this area quickly because they needed cheap, free labor and fertile land
Puritains came to create a religious utopia in response to religious persecution in England. There was a high literacy rate so everyone could read the Bible and religion was STRICTLY puritan. This was a great place for puritans but horrible for everyone else.
Dutch settlers and later included a melting pot of cultures. They were very diverse, tolerant, free with a lot of different cultures and trades.
The Deep South
Descendants of Barbados/Noblemen. They were known around the world for incredibly cruel, barbaric slavery ruled by a specific few. Stringent caste system and racial inequality. Brand of slavery relied solely on the exploitation of Africans
ideas of the Renaissance, maritime know-how and technology, trade with Asia, rise of nation-states
Factors in the Age of Exploration?
exchange of goods, values, ideas, religions, etc. The Europeans brought over horses, better weapons, disease, etc.
Significance of the Great Biological Exchange?
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