AP World History Unit 3 Vocab
Regional and Trans-Regional Interactions: 600-1450
Terms in this set (50)
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. State religion of Iran
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam.
Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran.
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire.
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs. From their capital at Damascus, they ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, they overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad.
King of the Franks; emperor. through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gual and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival.
Literally "middle age," a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance.
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward
A formal split within a religious community
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord.
In medieval Europe, land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. Lasted from 962 to 1806
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. It was a prominent element of medieval Christianity and Buddhism. These were primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. These brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
Journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins.
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 and ended 907. Emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an
The 1,100-mile waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
A system in which, from the time of the Han Empire, countries in East and Southeast Asia not under the direct control of empires based in China nevertheless enrolled as tributary states, acknowledging the superiority of the emperors in China in exchange for trading rights or strategic alliances
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. Because of its very high mortality rate and the difficulty of preventing its spread, major outbreaks have created crises in many parts of the world
Empire in central and southern China while the Liao people controlled the north. Empire in southern China while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics.
A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang, Ming, and Song Empires, specially designed for long distance commercial travel
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced into Champa from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state
A powerful city-state in central Mexico. Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calender
Also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico. They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins
Andean lineage group or kin-based community
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South American from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia
The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols. It means the "oceanic" or "universal" leader. Founder of the Mongol Empire
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan
Last of the Mongol Great Khans and founder of the Yuan Empire
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. Emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden city and voyages of Zheng He. The later years saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull.
City, now in ruins, whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in norther Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru (Cortes, Hernan, Pizarro, Francisco)