30 terms

Religion and Art

a people's dualistically symbolic consciousness of a spiritual dimension to ordinary life primarily consisting of spirits and forces that they ritually interact with at specific places and times as a means of realizing their desires.
symbolic dualism
value judgements( half of the world is good and half is bad) ie. up and down, Heaven and Hell, right and left, light and dark
belief in spirits (Tylor)
belief in a power or force that we have to live in accordance with(Marett), example: chi in China
Frazer's timeline
1.) magic 2.) religion 3.) science
sympathetic magic
anything done to an image of you affects you, "like produces like", example: voodoo dolls
contagious magic
affecting someone through direct contact, example:taking something from a particular location, person, etc.
methods of contact
1.)prayer 2.)music and dance 3.)possession 4.)hallucinogens 5.)meditation 6.)sacrifice 7.)communal rites 8.)inspirational activities 9.)dreams and visions 10.)symbolic action
rites of passage
life cycle and calendrical rites
life cycle rites
birth, puberty, marriage, death
calendrical rites
synchronize actions with passage of time in nature(passage of the day, week, year; lunar, seasonal)
spontaneous rites
occur in immediate response to something, ie. a crisis(intensification, healing, assurance)
rites of intensification
occur in response to a trigger(accident, etc.)
healing rites
used to heal the sick and injured
rites of assurance
used to reassure people of the success of whatever activity they're engaging in(rituals, taboos, fetishes); one of the most important functions of religion
rites of unification
efforts of people to be one with the spiritual dimension
the repeating of an act that you think will result in a desired outcome
religion function
provides an explanation, gives meaning to peoples' lives, religious narratives(myths, stories)
religion function
source of consolation-suffering is inescapable in life-suffering=stress, death,illness,alienation, etc.
religion function
sensuous stimulation-religious occasions/festivites are the most celebrated times of the year
religion function
principle source of guidance=map, cmpass, blueprint(sets out acceptable bahaviors, taboos, etc.)
religion function
offers resolve-people are able to do things through religious inspiration that they otherwise wouldn't be able to do
religion function
social order/social solidarity- people are working towards the same goal, cooperation, etc.
religion function
people can change their way of life/alter their social dynamics- revitalization movements(end a condition of suffering and bring about a new and better way of life; most are cults though)
religion function
human rights- establishes how people are to be treated, example: golden rule
religion function
human adaptation- religion is a necessary component with respect to human success, example: religion is basis of daily activity-calendar, helps with synchronization of natural world which leads to economic success
harmonizing dualism
"light and dark" can be reconciled because it all forms a whole, Taoism
polarizing dualism
"light and dark" can't be reconciled because it's a black and white world, us
Tylor's timeline
1.)animism 2.)polytheism 3.)monotheism
Marett's timeline
1.)animatism 2.)polytheism 3.)monotheism