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mental processes involved in acquiring, storing, and recovering knowledge; creates an internal record of an experience


acquiring info into the memory system


retaining info over time


recovering info from memory storage

Episodic memory

subdivision of declarative memory that store memories of personal experiences and events

Semantic memory

subdivision of declarative memory that store memories of facts and general knowledge

Proactive interference

moving forward (pro) to interfere with a new memory

Retroactive interference

moving backward (retro) to interfere with an old memory

Elizabeth Loftus

memory distortion in which existing memories can be altered if a person is exposed to misleading info

Henry Molaison

anterograde amnesia; unable to form new memories

Retrograde Amnesia

unable to remember some or all of their past; especially episodic memories for recent events


strategies for improving memory


smallest distinctive units of sound used in a language (approx 44 for English speakers)


smallest units of meaning in a language (prefix, root word, suffix)


grammatical rules for putting words in correct order


orgqanized mental framework about a particular topic, event, object, idea, setting, or group of people


type of schema that involves the typical sequence of behavior expected at an everyday event

Mental image

mental picture of a previously stored sensory experience

Benjamin Whorf

language may shape a person's thoughts and perceptions (linguistic relativity hypothesis)

Noam Chomsky

young children possess an innate capacity to learn and produce speech

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