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Word painting

the depiction of specific words through music that imitates the meaning of those words, music that imitates, describes or conjures images of the text being sung


English equivalent of what composers writing for the roman catholic church; in the renaissance, a sacred choral work for the Roman Catholic Church


an English sacred choral work


musical setting of a text in a single strophe (stanza)

Golden age of a cappella



style of writing in which every voice is a melody and all voices work together

Imitation (as a musical device)

a shortened form of the term "imitative counterpoint": the same theme introduced by different instruments or voices in succession

Basso continuo

group of instruments accompanying the singer; "continuous bass"; a small ensemble, widely used in music of the baroque, that plays throughout a work and provides an underlying bass line and harmonies. It consists of two instruments: one that can sustain long notes (such as bass viol, a cello, or a bassoon), and one that can play chords (such as a lute or a harpsichord)

Concerto grosso

an instrumental work for a soloist (or group of soloists) and a larger ensemble; Italian for "big concerto"; a concerto with multiple soloists


Italian for "little return"; name for the statement and return of the full ensemble, in a work alternating between the orchestra and soloists or soloists

Suite - dance movements

a series of individual dance movements, typically in a variety of types such as minuets, gavottes, and gigues, and a variety of charaters such as fast vs. slow, lively vs. stately, duple vs. triple

Winter concerto

for solo violin, an orchestra of string instruments, consists of 3 movements (fast slow fast)


a polyphonic work based on a central theme and employing imitation


central theme of a fugue


in a fugue, a passage in which the main subject (main theme) is absent


melody of the same hymn tune


a type of vocal genre typically sung during a service of worship. In Italian: "that which is sung", as opposed to sonata, "that which is played"


a work musically similar to an opera but not staged and usually on a sacred topic


a style of singing that lies somewhere between lyrical song and speech; also the operatic number that is sung in this style, aria: Italian for "air" or "melody"; any lyrical movement or piece for solo voice, usually with some kind of instrumental accompaniment


(George Frideric Handel Messiah) these selections are a recitative and aria followed by a large, grandchprw

Handel- water music, hornpipe

binary form, performed 3 times in triple meter with accents on weak beats - synccpanuh

Bach- organ fugue in G minor

Figure: a polyphonic work based on a central theme, very common type of composition in the baroque era

Bach- cantata #140

awake, a voice calls to us: first movement = polyphonic, last movement = homophonic; entire piece is a cantata - work sung during a sewice of worship: based on a hymn tune (a chorale when sung in 4 part harmony) closing chorale - sung in homophobic texture; melody is in the top voice, set syllabically in 4 part harmony, instruments of orchestra play some part as the voices sing called doubling

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