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applied behavior analysis

The systematic application of behavioral principles to change socially significant behavior

behavorial intervention plan

A written plan that contains the details of the strategies to be used in intervention and the assessment methods that will be used to evaluate the program.


The use of literature to help people solve problems and deal with feelings, to teach about a particular disability, or to promote social awareness and acceptance of differences.

conduct disorder

A disorder that involves a repetitive and persistent pattern that violates age-appropriate societal norms or the basic rights of others.

contingency contract

An agreement, usually in writing, that specifies consequences for desired performances.

creative dramatics

An improvised drama created by the players.

cross-age tutoring

The tutoring of younger students by older students

differential reinforcment

Positive reinforcement in which the teacher rewards students for performing behaviors other than, or behaviors that are incompatible with, targeted undesirable ones.

dimensional classification system

A classification system for emotional disturbance that includes six categories or dimensions.

externalizing disorders

Disorders that are typically expressed outwardly, including aggression, acting out, and disobedience.


Withholding positive reinforcement for a previously reinforced response.

independent group contingencies

An instructional grouping method in which group members' individual improvement is evaluated and rewarded.

interdependent group contingencies

An instructional grouping method in which group members' combined performance is evaluated and rewarded.

internalizing disorders

Disorders that are typically expressed inwardly, including personality problems, anxiety, and depression.

moof disorders

A class of disorders that includes manic disorders, depressive disorders, and bipolar disorders.

negative reinforcment

The presentation of an aversive stimulus and then its removal as a consequence of the student's behavior resulting in an increase of the behavior.

pharmacological treatment

The use of medication to help in controlling some emotional or behavioral disorders.

play therapy

The use of a child's play for self-expression and the exploring of feelings to work through troubling experiences, fears, and anxieties.

positive behavior support

A behaviorally based systems change approach to redesigning the environment to minimize problem behaviors.

positive reinforcment

The contingent presentation of a consequence following a student response to increase that response.

premack principle

Positive reinforcement procedure that uses student-preferred activities as reinforcers for performing less preferred activities.


Contingently applying an aversive consequence following a behavior to reduce the behavior.

recprocal tutoring

A form of tutoring in which students trade off the roles of tutor and tutee.

response cost

The withdrawal of specific numbers of reinforcers contingent on a behavior's occurrence.

reverse- role tutoring

A form of tutoring in which the student with the disability is the tutor.


A condition characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech and behavior.


The contingent removal of the student from a positively reinforcing environment for some predetermined amount of time.

token economy

The contingent presentation of something tangible that can be exchanged later for some preferred reinforcer.

universal intervention

An intervention that is used as a general schoolwide or whole classroom strategy for all students with and without disabilities.

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