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a measure of the average kinetic energy of its particles


the SI unit for temperature (K)

thermal energy

the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the particles that make up an object


thermal energy that flows from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature

specific heat

amount of thermal energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of some material by 1°C

4 states of matter

solid, liquid, gas, plasma


particles are packed closely together and are constantly vibrating in place- strong attractive forces hold particles in place


attractive forces between particles are weaker than in a solid and can slide past each other- attractive forces are strong enough to cause particles to ling together- definite volume but not definite shape


particles are far apart and attractive forces between them are weak-particles do not cling together- no definite shape or volume


made of electrically charged particles-matter consisting of positively and negatively charged particles and does not have a definite shape or volume


the transfer of thermal energy between colliding particles


the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of warmer and cooler materials occurs in a fluid by the movement of fluid from place to place

thermal conductor

a material in which thermal energy is transferred easily

thermal insulator

a material in which thermal energy moves slowly


the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

convection current

rising of warmer fluid and sinking of cooler fluid


forms when the air around matter cools enough so that water vapor in the air changes to a liquid


temperature increases, particles in liquid move faster and become farther apart and no longer cling together- vaporization occurs as liquid changes into gas- can occur within the liquid or at the surface of the liquid


vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid- causes temperature of liquid to decrease

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