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102 terms

Chapter 19: Blood

Martini-Nath Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology Eigth Edition
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blood
A specialized fluid connective tissue that contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix.
dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
One function of blood is that it transports:
pH and composition of interstitial fluids
One function of blood is that it regulates:
fluid loss at injury sites
One function of blood is that it restricts:
toxins and pathogens
One function of blood is that it defends against:
body temperature
One function of blood is that it stabilizes:
Plasma
Blood is a fluid connective tissue with a matrix called:
formed elements
Blood cells and cell fragments suspended in plasma make up this:
red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
These are the three formed elements in whole blood:
erythrocytes
Another name for red blood cells.
red blood cells
These are the most abundant blood cells and are essential for the transport of oxygen in the blood.
leukocytes
Another name for white blood cells.
white blood cells
These are less numerous than RBC's and participate in the body's defense mechanisms.
platelets
These are small, membrane-bound cell fragments that contain enzymes and other substances important to the process of clotting.
Hemopoiesis (hematopoiesis)
formed elements are produced through the process of:
Myeloid and lymphoid
These two populations of stem cells are responsible for the production of all kinds of formed elements.
100.4
What is the temperature of blood in °F
5
Blood is ____times more viscous than water.
5-6
How many liters of blood does the adult male contain?
4-5
How many liters of blood does the adult female contain?
92
What percentage of the volume does water account for in plasma?
The levels of respiratory gases and the concentrations and types of dissolved proteins
What are the primary differences between plasma and interstitial fluid?
Albumins, globulins, and fibrinogens
What are the three major types of plasm proteins?
albumins
This accounts for roughly 60% of the plasma proteins.
Albumins
This is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure of plasma and are important in the tranport of fatty acids, thyroid horomones, some steroid hormones, and other substances.
globulins
These account for approximately 35% of proteins in plasma.
immunoglobulins
Another name for antibodies
globulins
Importnat plasma _____ include antibodies.
Transport globulins
These bind small ions, hormones, and compounds that might otherwise be lost at the kidneys or that have very low solubility in water.
transport globulins
Hormone-binding proteins, metalloproteins, apolipoproteins, and steroid-binding proteins are all examples of what?
hromone-binding proteins
These provide a reserve of hormones in the bloodstream.
metalloproteins
These transport metal ions.
apolipoproteins
These carry triglycerides and other lipids in the blood.
steroid-binding proteins
These transport steroid hormones in the blood.
fibrinogen
This major type of plasma protein functinos in clotting.
4
what percent of plasma proteins does fibrinogen account for?
fibrin
Under certain conditions, fibrinogen molecules interact, forming large, insoluble strands of ____ that are the basic framwork for a clot.
serum
When preventing a blood clot in a sample of blood the clotting proteins are removed and this is what is left behind.
90
The liver synthesizes and releases more than ___% of the plasma proteins.
lymphocytes
plasma cells are derived from:
4.5-6.3
In an adult male, 1 microliter of whole blood contains____ million RBC's
4.2-5.5
In an adult female, 1 microliter of whole blood contains ____ million RBC's
1/3
RBC's account fo roughly what percent of all the cells in the body?
hematocrit
This is the percentage of whole blood volume contributed by formed elements.
42 and 46
The average percentage of hematocrit in males and females is how much?
androgens
What accounts for the difference in percentage of hematocrit in males and females?
1000
Whole blood contains how many RBCs for every 1 WBC?
Volume of Packed red cells (VPRC) or packed cell volume (PCV)
Hematocrit is commonly reported as the ____ because it contains mostly RBCs.
decrease
Hematocrit increases during dehydration, owing to a ____ in plasma volume.
rouleaux
The 'stacks' of RBC's is known as:
120
The life span of a RBC is usually less than ____ days due to the lack of internal organelles.
anaerobic metabolism of glucose
Because RBCs lack mitochondria, they obtain energy by:
Hemoglobin
Molecules of ____ account for more than 95% of a RBCs intracellular proteins.
Hemoglobin
This is responsible for the cell's ability to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
alpha and beta
Each Hb molecule has 2___chains and 2___ chains of polypeptides.
heme
Each Hb chain contains a single molecule of ___, a non-protein pigment complex.
oxyhemoglobin
Each heme unit holds an iron ion in such a way that the iron can interact with oxygen molecule, forming _____
deoxyhemoglobin
A hemoglobin molecule whose iron is not bound to oxygen is called ______
280
How many million Hb molecules does each red blood cell contain?
4
How many heme UNITS does each hemoglobin contain?
carbaminohemoglobin
When alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin bind to carbon dioxide the form:
Anemia
if the hematocrit is low or the Hb content of RBCs is reduced, the resulting condition is called:
phagocytes
These engulf the RBCs after they are ruptured or damaged (usually about 120 days)
sickle cell anemia
This results from a mutation affecting the amino acid sequence of the beta chains in Hb molecule.
hemolyze
Macrophages of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor the condition of circulating RBC's generally recognizing and engulfing them before they ____, or rupture
macrophages
____ of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor the condition of RBC and engulf them before they hemolyze.
hemolysis
when this occurs, the Hb breaks down, and the alpha and beta chains are filtered by the kidneys and eliminated in urine.
hemoglobinuria
When abnormally large numbers of RBCs break down in the bloodstream, urine may turn red or brown, this is called:
hematuria
The presence of intact RBCs in urine- a sign called ____ occurs only after kidney damage or damage to vessels along the urinary tract.
disassembled and then either metabolized or absorbed by other cells
What happens to globular proteins when RBCs get recycled.
biliverdin
During recycling of RBCs, each heme unit is stripped of its iron and converted to:
urobilinogens and stercobilinogens
In the large intestine, bacteria convert bilirubin to related pigments called:
urobilins
Urine is yellow because it contains:
urobilins and stercobilins
Feces is yellow-brow or brown because it contains:
urobilins and stercobilins
Upon exposure to oxygen, some of the urogilinogens and stercobilinogens are converted to:
transferrin
Iron extracted from heme molecules may be bound and stored in a phagocytic cell or released into the bloodstream, where it binds to _____
transferrins
Excess____ are removed in the liver and speen and the iron is stored in two special protein-iron complexes.
ferritin and hemosiderin
These are the two special protein-iron complexes that excess iron are stored in:
vessels of embryonic yolk sac
What is the primary site of blood formation for the first eight weeks of a developing fetus?
erythropoiesis
this is the process of red blood cell formation.
myeloid tissue
Erythropoiesis occurs where?
yellow bone marrow
These are marrow areas containing a fatty tissue known as:
red marrow
During extreme stimulation such as severe blood loss, areas of yellow marrow conver to _____ to increase RBC production.
hemocytoblasts
This is also known as multipotent stem cells in bone marrrow
myeloid and lymphoid
These are the 2 stem cells produced by hemocytoblasts
myeloid stem cell
These divide to produce RBCs and several classes of white blood cells.
lymphoid stem cells
these divide to produce the various classes of lymphocytes.
proerythroblasts erythroblast
Cells destined to become RBCs first differentiate into _____and then proceed through various ____ stages.
erythroblast
These actively synthesize hemoglobin and are named based on total size, amount of hemoglobin present, and size and appearance fo the nucleus.
normoblast
after 4 days of differentiation, the erythroblast is called a ____
reticulocyte
When the erythroblast becomes a normoblast and shed its nucleus it becomes a:
B12, B6, and folic acid
What are the three vitamins required for erythropoiesis?
amino acids, iron, and vitamins
For erythropoiesis to proceed normally, the red bone marrow must recieve adequate supplies of _______ required for protein synthesis.
pernicious anemia
If vitamin B12 is not obtained from the diet, normal stem cell divisions cannot occur and _____ results.
Erythropoietin
This is aka erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone and is a glycoprotein, formed by the kidneys and liver that appears in the plasma when peripheral tissues are exposed to low Oxygen levels.
hypoxia
The state of low tissue oxygen levels is called:
erythropoietin
this is released during anemia, when blood flow to the kidneys declines, when oxygen content of the lungs declines, and when the respiratory surfaces of the lungs are damaged.
erythropoietin
This stimulates increased cell division rates in erythroblasts and in the stem cells that produce erythroblasts and speeds up the maturation of RBCs.
blood type
this is a classification determined by the presence or absence of specific surface antigens in RBC plasma membranes.
agglutinogens
Surface antigens on your own RBCs:
agglutinins
Plasma contains antibodies, sometimes called ____ that will attack the antigens on foreign RBCs.
agglutination
What it is called when foreign cells clump together.