dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
One function of blood is that it transports:
red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
These are the three formed elements in whole blood:
red blood cells
These are the most abundant blood cells and are essential for the transport of oxygen in the blood.
white blood cells
These are less numerous than RBC's and participate in the body's defense mechanisms.
These are small, membrane-bound cell fragments that contain enzymes and other substances important to the process of clotting.
Myeloid and lymphoid
These two populations of stem cells are responsible for the production of all kinds of formed elements.
The levels of respiratory gases and the concentrations and types of dissolved proteins
What are the primary differences between plasma and interstitial fluid?
This is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure of plasma and are important in the tranport of fatty acids, thyroid horomones, some steroid hormones, and other substances.
These bind small ions, hormones, and compounds that might otherwise be lost at the kidneys or that have very low solubility in water.
Hormone-binding proteins, metalloproteins, apolipoproteins, and steroid-binding proteins are all examples of what?
Under certain conditions, fibrinogen molecules interact, forming large, insoluble strands of ____ that are the basic framwork for a clot.
When preventing a blood clot in a sample of blood the clotting proteins are removed and this is what is left behind.
Volume of Packed red cells (VPRC) or packed cell volume (PCV)
Hematocrit is commonly reported as the ____ because it contains mostly RBCs.
Each heme unit holds an iron ion in such a way that the iron can interact with oxygen molecule, forming _____
if the hematocrit is low or the Hb content of RBCs is reduced, the resulting condition is called:
sickle cell anemia
This results from a mutation affecting the amino acid sequence of the beta chains in Hb molecule.
Macrophages of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor the condition of circulating RBC's generally recognizing and engulfing them before they ____, or rupture
____ of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor the condition of RBC and engulf them before they hemolyze.
when this occurs, the Hb breaks down, and the alpha and beta chains are filtered by the kidneys and eliminated in urine.
When abnormally large numbers of RBCs break down in the bloodstream, urine may turn red or brown, this is called:
The presence of intact RBCs in urine- a sign called ____ occurs only after kidney damage or damage to vessels along the urinary tract.
disassembled and then either metabolized or absorbed by other cells
What happens to globular proteins when RBCs get recycled.
urobilinogens and stercobilinogens
In the large intestine, bacteria convert bilirubin to related pigments called:
urobilins and stercobilins
Upon exposure to oxygen, some of the urogilinogens and stercobilinogens are converted to:
Iron extracted from heme molecules may be bound and stored in a phagocytic cell or released into the bloodstream, where it binds to _____
Excess____ are removed in the liver and speen and the iron is stored in two special protein-iron complexes.
ferritin and hemosiderin
These are the two special protein-iron complexes that excess iron are stored in:
vessels of embryonic yolk sac
What is the primary site of blood formation for the first eight weeks of a developing fetus?
During extreme stimulation such as severe blood loss, areas of yellow marrow conver to _____ to increase RBC production.
Cells destined to become RBCs first differentiate into _____and then proceed through various ____ stages.
These actively synthesize hemoglobin and are named based on total size, amount of hemoglobin present, and size and appearance fo the nucleus.
amino acids, iron, and vitamins
For erythropoiesis to proceed normally, the red bone marrow must recieve adequate supplies of _______ required for protein synthesis.
If vitamin B12 is not obtained from the diet, normal stem cell divisions cannot occur and _____ results.
This is aka erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone and is a glycoprotein, formed by the kidneys and liver that appears in the plasma when peripheral tissues are exposed to low Oxygen levels.
this is released during anemia, when blood flow to the kidneys declines, when oxygen content of the lungs declines, and when the respiratory surfaces of the lungs are damaged.
This stimulates increased cell division rates in erythroblasts and in the stem cells that produce erythroblasts and speeds up the maturation of RBCs.
this is a classification determined by the presence or absence of specific surface antigens in RBC plasma membranes.
Plasma contains antibodies, sometimes called ____ that will attack the antigens on foreign RBCs.