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Chapter 19: Blood
Martini-Nath Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology Eigth Edition
A specialized fluid connective tissue that contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix.
dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
One function of blood is that it transports:
pH and composition of interstitial fluids
One function of blood is that it regulates:
fluid loss at injury sites
One function of blood is that it restricts:
toxins and pathogens
One function of blood is that it defends against:
One function of blood is that it stabilizes:
Blood is a fluid connective tissue with a matrix called:
Blood cells and cell fragments suspended in plasma make up this:
red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
These are the three formed elements in whole blood:
Another name for red blood cells.
red blood cells
These are the most abundant blood cells and are essential for the transport of oxygen in the blood.
Another name for white blood cells.
white blood cells
These are less numerous than RBC's and participate in the body's defense mechanisms.
These are small, membrane-bound cell fragments that contain enzymes and other substances important to the process of clotting.
formed elements are produced through the process of:
Myeloid and lymphoid
These two populations of stem cells are responsible for the production of all kinds of formed elements.
What is the temperature of blood in °F
Blood is ____times more viscous than water.
How many liters of blood does the adult male contain?
How many liters of blood does the adult female contain?
What percentage of the volume does water account for in plasma?
The levels of respiratory gases and the concentrations and types of dissolved proteins
What are the primary differences between plasma and interstitial fluid?
Albumins, globulins, and fibrinogens
What are the three major types of plasm proteins?
This accounts for roughly 60% of the plasma proteins.
This is a major contributor to the osmotic pressure of plasma and are important in the tranport of fatty acids, thyroid horomones, some steroid hormones, and other substances.
These account for approximately 35% of proteins in plasma.
Another name for antibodies
Importnat plasma _____ include antibodies.
These bind small ions, hormones, and compounds that might otherwise be lost at the kidneys or that have very low solubility in water.
Hormone-binding proteins, metalloproteins, apolipoproteins, and steroid-binding proteins are all examples of what?
These provide a reserve of hormones in the bloodstream.
These transport metal ions.
These carry triglycerides and other lipids in the blood.
These transport steroid hormones in the blood.
This major type of plasma protein functinos in clotting.
what percent of plasma proteins does fibrinogen account for?
Under certain conditions, fibrinogen molecules interact, forming large, insoluble strands of ____ that are the basic framwork for a clot.
When preventing a blood clot in a sample of blood the clotting proteins are removed and this is what is left behind.
The liver synthesizes and releases more than ___% of the plasma proteins.
plasma cells are derived from:
In an adult male, 1 microliter of whole blood contains____ million RBC's
In an adult female, 1 microliter of whole blood contains ____ million RBC's
RBC's account fo roughly what percent of all the cells in the body?
This is the percentage of whole blood volume contributed by formed elements.
42 and 46
The average percentage of hematocrit in males and females is how much?
What accounts for the difference in percentage of hematocrit in males and females?
Whole blood contains how many RBCs for every 1 WBC?
Volume of Packed red cells (VPRC) or packed cell volume (PCV)
Hematocrit is commonly reported as the ____ because it contains mostly RBCs.
Hematocrit increases during dehydration, owing to a ____ in plasma volume.
The 'stacks' of RBC's is known as:
The life span of a RBC is usually less than ____ days due to the lack of internal organelles.
anaerobic metabolism of glucose
Because RBCs lack mitochondria, they obtain energy by:
Molecules of ____ account for more than 95% of a RBCs intracellular proteins.
This is responsible for the cell's ability to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
alpha and beta
Each Hb molecule has 2___chains and 2___ chains of polypeptides.
Each Hb chain contains a single molecule of ___, a non-protein pigment complex.
Each heme unit holds an iron ion in such a way that the iron can interact with oxygen molecule, forming _____
A hemoglobin molecule whose iron is not bound to oxygen is called ______
How many million Hb molecules does each red blood cell contain?
How many heme UNITS does each hemoglobin contain?
When alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin bind to carbon dioxide the form:
if the hematocrit is low or the Hb content of RBCs is reduced, the resulting condition is called:
These engulf the RBCs after they are ruptured or damaged (usually about 120 days)
sickle cell anemia
This results from a mutation affecting the amino acid sequence of the beta chains in Hb molecule.
Macrophages of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor the condition of circulating RBC's generally recognizing and engulfing them before they ____, or rupture
____ of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow monitor the condition of RBC and engulf them before they hemolyze.
when this occurs, the Hb breaks down, and the alpha and beta chains are filtered by the kidneys and eliminated in urine.
When abnormally large numbers of RBCs break down in the bloodstream, urine may turn red or brown, this is called:
The presence of intact RBCs in urine- a sign called ____ occurs only after kidney damage or damage to vessels along the urinary tract.
disassembled and then either metabolized or absorbed by other cells
What happens to globular proteins when RBCs get recycled.
During recycling of RBCs, each heme unit is stripped of its iron and converted to:
urobilinogens and stercobilinogens
In the large intestine, bacteria convert bilirubin to related pigments called:
Urine is yellow because it contains:
urobilins and stercobilins
Feces is yellow-brow or brown because it contains:
urobilins and stercobilins
Upon exposure to oxygen, some of the urogilinogens and stercobilinogens are converted to:
Iron extracted from heme molecules may be bound and stored in a phagocytic cell or released into the bloodstream, where it binds to _____
Excess____ are removed in the liver and speen and the iron is stored in two special protein-iron complexes.
ferritin and hemosiderin
These are the two special protein-iron complexes that excess iron are stored in:
vessels of embryonic yolk sac
What is the primary site of blood formation for the first eight weeks of a developing fetus?
this is the process of red blood cell formation.
Erythropoiesis occurs where?
yellow bone marrow
These are marrow areas containing a fatty tissue known as:
During extreme stimulation such as severe blood loss, areas of yellow marrow conver to _____ to increase RBC production.
This is also known as multipotent stem cells in bone marrrow
myeloid and lymphoid
These are the 2 stem cells produced by hemocytoblasts
myeloid stem cell
These divide to produce RBCs and several classes of white blood cells.
lymphoid stem cells
these divide to produce the various classes of lymphocytes.
Cells destined to become RBCs first differentiate into _____and then proceed through various ____ stages.
These actively synthesize hemoglobin and are named based on total size, amount of hemoglobin present, and size and appearance fo the nucleus.
after 4 days of differentiation, the erythroblast is called a ____
When the erythroblast becomes a normoblast and shed its nucleus it becomes a:
B12, B6, and folic acid
What are the three vitamins required for erythropoiesis?
amino acids, iron, and vitamins
For erythropoiesis to proceed normally, the red bone marrow must recieve adequate supplies of _______ required for protein synthesis.
If vitamin B12 is not obtained from the diet, normal stem cell divisions cannot occur and _____ results.
This is aka erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone and is a glycoprotein, formed by the kidneys and liver that appears in the plasma when peripheral tissues are exposed to low Oxygen levels.
The state of low tissue oxygen levels is called:
this is released during anemia, when blood flow to the kidneys declines, when oxygen content of the lungs declines, and when the respiratory surfaces of the lungs are damaged.
This stimulates increased cell division rates in erythroblasts and in the stem cells that produce erythroblasts and speeds up the maturation of RBCs.
this is a classification determined by the presence or absence of specific surface antigens in RBC plasma membranes.
Surface antigens on your own RBCs:
Plasma contains antibodies, sometimes called ____ that will attack the antigens on foreign RBCs.
What it is called when foreign cells clump together.