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123 terms

Patho Final

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Hypovolemic Shock
The liver and spleen add to the blood volume by disgorging stored red blood cells and plasma
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Compensates for hypovolemic shock by stimulating aldosterone release, which retains sodium and hence water to increase the blood volume
Oliguria
Any shock can cause (blank) by decreasing the perfusion to kidneys. Associated with prerenal failure
Septic shock
Shock following infection
Cardiogenic shock
Shock characterized by pump failure, follows a myocardial infection
Anaphylactic shock
Shock characterized by allergic response; more severe than other forms because of its sudden, rapid systemic vasodilation. Follows widespread hypersensitivity reaction
Vasogenic shock
Overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system or understimulation of sympathetic nervous system
Neurogenic shock
Follows parasympathetic stimulation
Hypovolemic shock
Shock that follows burns
Multi-organ dysfunction or MODS
Impaired perfusion is the primary mechanism that causes organ injury; a spiral that occurs following uncontrolled shock
First-degree
Only outer layer of skin in burned, but not all the way through. Skin is red, with swelling, and pain is sometimes present
Second-degree
Superficial; first layer of skin has been burned through and the second layer of skin (dermis) is also burned. Blisters developed and skin takes on intensely reddened, splotchy appearance
Third-degree
Involves all layers of the skin and cause permanent tissue damage. Areas may be charred black or appear dry and and white.
Third-degree
Difficulty inhaling and exhaling, CO poisoning, or other toxic effects may occur if smoke inhalation accompanies burns
Scald burns
Caused by hot grease or boiling water
Contact burns
Cigarette burns or curling irons
Flame burns
Involves flammable liquids such as gasoline
Electrical burns
Direct contact with high and/or low voltage currents
Chemical burns
Corrosive agent- think acid
Heat stroke
Most life threatening injury (hypothermic injury)
Heat cramps
Painful muscle spasms which usually affect arms, legs, or stomach. Sweating depletes body's salt and moisture
Heat exhaustion
Still sweats, but experiences extreme weekness or fatigue, nausea, or headache
Heat rash
Prickly heat
Hyperplasia
Extra cells, increased number
Hypertrophy
Increased size
Dysplasia
Abnormality in development
Metaplasia
Reversible placement of one mature cell type with another cell type
Pathologic atrophy
Is commonly caused by disease- cellular change
Malignant cells
Have a high mitotic index
Kussmaul respirations
Deep, rapid respirations. Occurs in metabolic acidosis to decrease CO2 and thereby reduce carbonic acid
Autosomal dominant transmission
Males equal to females, no skipped generations, and transmitted to half of offspring
Carcinoma in situ
Preinvasive epithelial malignant tumors (e.g. cervical
Stage 1
Cancer has formed
Stage 2
In lymph nodes
Stage 3
Spread to regional structures
Stage 4
Distant metastasis
T-cell development
Thymus is central lymphoid organ
Prevalence rate
Disease is proportion of the population affected by a disease at a specific point in time
Incidence
Number of new cases of a disease reported during a specific period (typically 1 year)
Serous
Clear, water fluids- exudates
Seroanguinous
Clear, watery fluids mixed with blood
Hemorrhagic
Blood (exudate)
Suppurative
Exudate; present during bacterial infections (pus)
Nocieceptive pain
Impulses arises from skin, muscle, joints, arteries, and viscera in response to chemical, mechanical, thermal stimuli
Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE)
Autoimmune disease
Conductive hearing loss
Occurs when a change in outer ear or middle ear impairs sound from being conducted from outer to inner ear
Hyponatremia
Confusion, irritability, depression, headache, seizures
Hypernatremia
Hypotension, fever, tachycardia
Hypokalemia
Absent bowel sounds, skeletal muscle weakness, bradycardia
Hypomagnesemia
Depression, confusion, irritability, increased reflexes, tetany
Hypercalcemia
Fatigue, weakness, kidney stones, varying degrees of heart block
Brain Abcess
Complication of mastoiditis
Crypto neoformans
Opportunistic infection
Meningitis
CNS manifestation of tuberculosis
Encephalitis
Mosquito- borne viral infection
Lyme disease
Tick-borne bacterial infection
Schizophrenia
Involves psychotic episodes
Mania
Characterized by elevated levels of euphoria
Depression
Unremitting feeling of sadness and despair
Panic disorder
Intensive autonomic arousal including lightheadedness, dyspnea, generalized sweating, racing heart
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Repetitive, intrusive thoughts
Acromegaly
Excessive growth hormone caused by pituitary tumor
Cushing disease
Hypersecretion of ACTH
Addison disease
Adrenal insufficiency
Graves disease
Autoimmune hyperthyroiditis
Myxedema
Cutaneous edema often associated with thyroid disease
Pheochromocytoma
Tumor of adrenal medulla
Chronic osteomyelitis
Distinguishing characteristic of inflammatory exudates
Klinefelter syndrome
Chromosomal disorder caused by nondisjunction of X chromosome in mother
Consanguinity
Mating of persons having common family relations- incest
Asthma CMs
Inspiratory and expiratory wheezing, dyspnea, nonproductive cough, tachpnea
Aspiration
Passage fluid and solid particles into lung
Bronchiolitis
Inflammatory obstruction of small airways
Pulmonary fibrosis
Excessive amount of connective tissue in lung
Bronchiectasis
Abnormal dilation of bronchi
Pulmonary embolus
Often caused by venous stasis and hypercoagulability
Pernicious anemia
Anemia; lack of intrinsic factor
Mononucleosis
Caused by epstein bar virus
Sympathetic nervous system
Increased cardiac contractility, increased rate
Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale
Jugular vein distention, hepatosplenomegaly or ascites, edema, pulmonary hypertension. Involves parasympathetic nervous system
Hypertension
Long standing evidence of BP >140/90
Cardiac output
Amount of blood is pumped out left ventricle to aorta
Asthma
Main CM is bronchoconstriction, allergies frequently involved, with elevated IgE
Cyanosis
Decreased arterial oxygenation with 5 gms of unoxygenated hemoglobin
Urinary tract infection
CMs burning on urgency. In elderly may include confusion and poorly localized abdominal discomfort
Prerenal failure
Renal hypoperfusion
Intrarenal failure
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
Postrenal failure
Prostatic hypertrophy
Hyperkalemia
Glucose and insulin used to treat because insulin transports glucose into the cell, it also carries potassium with it. 3.5-5.0 MEq
Tinea corporis
Caused ringworm- fungal infection of skin
Wart
Verruca or lichen planus; elevated, firm circumscribed area less than 1 cm in diameter
Psoriasis
Seborrheic and actinic planus; elevated, firm, rough lesion with flat top surface greater then 1 cm in diameter
Nevus
Flat mole; circumscribed area that is less than 1 cm in diameter
Urticaria
Allergic reaction; elevated irregular-shaped area of cutaneous edema; solid, transient, with variable diameter; hives
Varicella or herpes zoster
Elevated circumscribed, superficial lesion filled with serous fluid, less then 1 cm in diameter
Osmotic diarrhea
Result of unhyrolized lactose- lactase deficiency
Reflux esophagitis
Inflammatory response to gastroesophageal reflux
Ulcerative colitis
Inflammation developed in crypts of Lieberkuhn in large intestine
Crohns disease
Alteration of IgG production have been found in individuals with this disorder
Rheumatoid Arthritis
CMs are Systemic, fatigue, fever, weakness
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Synovitis and bone marrow inflammation; FUSION of spine and Los if lumbar curve
Gout
High uric acid, At high risk for renal calculi
Antibodies
Produced in plasma cells
Segmental inhibition
E. G. Hitting one's thumb with a hammer and holding it or putting it in mouth
Extradural hematoma
Usually from arterial bleed
Cerebral hemorrhage
Usually caused by hypertension
Acute Rheumatic Fever
Sequel to strep throat
Aortic semilunar valve
Failure to close completely causes ejected blood flow back into left ventricle during diastole
Parathyroid gland
Regulates calcium
REM sleep
Desynchronized, low voltage, fast activity that occurs about every 90 minutes
Active acquired
Type of immunity that is produced by an individual after either natural exposure to antigen or after immunization against antigen
6 days
Time period before antibody can detected in circulation after exposure to antigen
Pathologic
Fracture at site if a preexisting bone abnormality, usually by a force that would normally not cause a fracture
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Lack of insulin, often due to autoimmune destruction of islets of langerhorn;
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Insulin resistance
Diabetes mellitus
Leads to hyperglycemia and as glucose spills into urine, polyuria
Diabetes insipidus
Lack of ADH, polyuria, hypernatremia
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Chronic autoimmune disease
Tuberculosis
Bacterial infection; spread by air droplet from person to person
Spinal cord injury
Level or injury indicates CMs; older adults more at risk from Minor trauma
Night terrors
Sudden apparent arousal in which child expresses intense fear or another strong enothion while in sleep state
Passive innate immunity
Passed mother to fetus and continues to provide immunity during first months of life
Dehydration CMs
Dry mucous membranes, poor skin turgor, pulse is weak, tachycardia