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Politics of the United States
Supreme court cases
Terms in this set (50)
Chisholm v. Georgia
The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (a citizen of South Carolina) sued the state of Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right of citizens of one state to sue another state, and decided against Georgia.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Fletcher v. Peck
arose with a GA legistlatire was swayed by bribary granted 35 million acres in the yazoo river country to private speculators, legislature cancelled it, said constitution forbid state laws imparing contracts.
Dartmouth v. Woodward
This 1819 Marshall Court decision was one of the earliest and most important U.S. Supreme Court decisions to interpret the contracts clause in Article I, Section 10 of the Constitution. The case arose from a dispute in New Hampshire over the state's attempt to take over Dartmouth College. By construing the Contract Clause as a means of protecting corporate charters from state interventions, Marshall derived a significant constitutional limitation on state authority. As a result, various forms of private economic and social activity would enjoy security from state regulatory policy. Marshall thus encouraged the emergence of the relatively unregulated private economic actor as the major participant in a growing national economy.
McCullough v. Maryland
1819 ruling by the Supreme Court stating that Maryland could not tax the local office of the Bank of the United States because it was the property of the National Gov't
Cohens v. Virginia
Supreme Court case which asserted the right of the Supreme Court to review the decision of state supreme courts.
Johnson v. McIntosh
Established that Indian tribes had rights to tribal lands that preceded all other American law; only the federal government could take land from the tribes.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had "an unquestionable right" to their lands, but they were "not a foreign state, in the sense of the Constitution" but rather a "domestic, dependent nation" and so could not sue in a United States court over Georgia's voiding their right to self-rule. Was a blow to the Cherokee case, it cast doubt on the constitutionality of Indian Removal Act.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837) interest of community are above corporate rights case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract.
africans destined for slavery in cuba seized a ship and tried to sail it to africa but the US navy seized it and held the africans as pirates; court declared them free because of the international slave trade had been illegal.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
Supreme Court case in which Edward Prigg appealed to the US Supreme Court on the grounds that the Pennsylvania law arrogated the State powers over and above those allowed by the US Constitution The court held that Federal law is superior to State law, and overturned the conviction of Prigg as a result.
Dredd Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott was a slave. Under Articles III and IV, argued Taney, no one but a citizen of the United States could be a citizen of a state, and that only Congress could confer national citizenship.
Ex parte Merryman
-1861 Chief Justice Taney ruled that Lincoln had exceeded his authority in suspending the writ habeas corpus in Maryland. -Lincoln ignored Taney's ruling, argued that the constitution allowed this suspension in a time of rebellion.
Ex parte Milligan
was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled suspension of Habeas Corpus by President Abraham Lincoln as constitutional.
the 5th and 14th amendments do not guarantee federal protection of individual rights of all citizens of the United States against discrimination by their own state governments; made a distinction between state citizenship and national citizenship.
U.S. v. Reese
Supreme Court case which said the 15th Amendment did not give everyone the right to vote but listed the grounds for which states could NOT deny the right to vote.
Munn v. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Civil Rights Cases
This post civil war decision stated that the 14th Amendment only outlawed government discrimination and could not stop PRIVATE businesses (theatres, hotels...) from discrimination.
Wabash, St. Louis, & Pacific Railroad v.
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
In Re Debs
Supreme Court approved use of court injunctions against strikes which gave employers a very powerful weapon to break unions; Debs later turned to the American Socialist Party in 1900.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
Northern Securities Co. v. United States
The Supreme Court ruled that the Northern Securities Company, which controlled three railroads and monopolized rail transit for 1/4 of the United States was in violation of the Sherman Anti Trust Act of 1890. This was the first real usage of the law to break down monopolies.
Lochner v. New York
Supreme Court case which struck a blow to Progressives by invalidating the law establishing a 10 hour day for bakers.
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health.
Standard Oil of N.J. v. U.S.
was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States found Standard Oil guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry through a series of abusive and anticompetitive actions. The court's remedy was to divide Standard Oil into several competing firms.
Schenck v. U.S.
a United States Supreme Court decision concerning the question of whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I. Ultimately, the case served as the founding of the "clear and present danger" rule.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Supreme Court case that invalidated Muller v. Oregon, declaring that since women now had the vote, they were equal to men and undeserving of special protection.
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.
this "sick-chicken" case declared AAA unconstitutional as it violated the Constitution's interstate commerce clause.
West Coast Hotel v. Parrish
(1937) ruled that the Constitution permitted the restriction of liberty of contract by state law where such restriction protected the community, health and safety or vulnerable groups. Cited Muller v. Oregon. (Explicit end of Lochner Era)
West Virginia State School Board v. Barnett
a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that held that the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution protected students from being forced to salute the American flag and say the Pledge of Allegiance in school.
Korematsu v. U.S.
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor.
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; "separate but equal" has no place; reverse decision of Plessy v Furgeson.
Mapp v. Ohio
a landmark case in the area of U.S. criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures" may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
Baker v. Carr
(LBJ) 1962 Baker v. Carr, case decided in 1962 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Tennessee had failed to reapportion the state legislature for 60 years despite population growth and redistribution. Charles Baker, a voter, brought suit against the state (Joe Carr was a state official in charge of elections) in federal district court, claiming that the dilution of his vote as a result of the state's failure to reapportion violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The court dismissed the complaint on the grounds that it could not decide a political question. Baker appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled that a case raising a political issue would be heard. This landmark decision opened the way for numerous suits on legislative apportionment.
Engel v. Vitale
The 1962 Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's schoolchildren.
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
New York Times v. Sullivan
Libel case-writer did it with intent to defame-knew it was false-wrote it with malicious intent. Public officials/figures have less privacy rights.
Escobedo v. Illinois
Ruled that a defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S.
(Pick Customers by Race)- Places of public commodities had no right to pick and choose their own customers. The 1964 Civil Rights Act Title II was specifically targeting and severely limited to businesses with a direct relation to interstate commerce so it is constitutional. Congress could regulate local commerce.
Griswold v. Connecticut
married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment.
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
New York Times v. U.S.
Supreme Court case protecting the freedom of the press by allowing the New York Times to publish the "Pentagon Papers" despite the Justice Department's order to restrict it.
Griggs v. Duke Power
1971 case that recognized adverse impact discrimination.
Roe v. Wade
'73 Supreme court decision that stuck down 46 state laws restricting women's access to abortion (highlighted divisions within women's movement.
U.S. v. Nixon
The Supreme Court does have the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is 'demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial'.
Bakke v. Board of Regents
US court case in which Bakke was denied to University of California Medical School twice to people less qualified based on race. Case determined that affirmative action is legal as long as filling quotas is not used.
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