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Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves

Both cerebrum and cerebellum have gray matter in their surface cortex and deeper nuclei, and white matter deep to the cortex.
The cerebellum exhibits folds called gyri separated by grooves called sulci
Epidural space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) helps preventing hemorrhages in the nervous tissue of the brain.
The blood-CFS barrier is composed of dense regular connective tissue lining the
Purkinje cells are unusually large neurons found in the cerebellum.
The cerebellum is the largest part of the brain.
The medulla oblongata is the most rostral part of the brain.
The forebrain consists of the cerebrum and the diencephalon.
Structures in the midbrain control homeostasis and relay sensory signals to specific regions of the cerebral cortex.
The amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus are involved in such feelings as love, anger, fear, pleasure and pain.
The Wernicke area recognizes spoken and written language.
The vision association area resides primary in the temporal lobe
All cranial nerves lead to structures in the head and neck.
There are three cranial nerves involved in eye movement and two in the sense of taste
the cerebellum
The following are all major components of the brainstem except
the longitudinal fissure.
The right and left cerebral hemispheres are separated from each other by
The cerebellum is __ to the cerebrum.
cortex; nuclei
The gray matter of the brain forms a surface layer called ___ and deeper masses called ___ surrounded by white matter.
The pons and cerebellum relate with this secondary embryonic vesicle.
This figure shows the major anatomical landmarks of the medial surface of the brain. What does "7" represent?
This figure shows the major anatomical landmarks of the medial surface of the brain. What does "3" represent?
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater.
From superficial to deep, the meninges occur in this order:
to provide oxygen and nutrients to the nervous tissue.
Cerebrospinal fluid serves these purposes except
lateral, third and fourth; superior sagittal sinus
Cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by choroid plexuses in the ____ ventricles and reabsorbed by arachnoid villi in the ___.
glucose and oxygen.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is most permeable to
tight junctions between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) consists of
A patient is experiencing a high fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, and intense headaches. A spinal tap showed bacteria and white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This individual most likely has
the myelencephalon.
The medulla oblongata originates from
the medulla oblongata.
The cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers are found in
superior colliculi
The ___ function(s) in visual attention, such as to look and follow the flight of a butterfly
substantia nigra
Degeneration of neurons in this structure, which inhibits unwanted body movements, leads to the muscle tremors of Parkinson disease.
gray matter; brainstem
The reticular formation is a web of ___ scattered throughout the ____.
The ___ is the largest part of the hindbrain.
Loss of equilibrium and motor coordination would most likely be related with a lesion in the
the cerebellum
The arbor vitae is a structure found in
the cerebellum.
There are no cranial nerves associated with
neck movements
The pons is not associated with
The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus are derivatives of the embryonic
the thalamus.
Nearly all the somatosensory input to the cerebrum passes by way of synapses in
the hypothalamus
Sex drive, body temperature, and food and water intake are regulated by
suprachiasmatic nucleus
A lesion of the ___ would probably cause a person to sleep for random lengths of time during a 24-hour period.
the epithalamus.
Pineal gland belongs to
the frontal lobe
Planning, motivation, and social judgment are function of the brain associated with
the principal visual center of the brain.
The occipital lobe is
the insula
This figure shows the lobes of the cerebrum, and some anatomical landmarks. What does "4" represent?
The great majority of ____ tracts pass through the corpus callosum.
the neocortex.
Most gray matter of the cerebrum is located in
the limbic system.
Hippocampus and amygdala are structures found in
A predominance of ___ waves in an electroencephalogram (EEG) might indicate that a person is physically and mentally relaxed.
the muscles are paralyzed, and body temperature, blood pressure, and heart and respiratory rates increase.
During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
parietal; temporal
The ___ association area is responsible for perceiving and attending to stimuli, and the ___ association area is responsible for identifying them.
hippocampus; cerebral cortex
Short-term memory is associated with the ____, whereas long-term memory is associated with the ___.
expression of emotional feelings
Ablation (destruction) of the amygdala would mostly affect
postcentral gyrus
Touch is first processed in the _____ in the ____.
the fingers
Which body region is controlled by the largest area of the motor cortex?
upper motor
The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus are called ___ neurons.
Broca area
Nonfluent aphasia, due to a lesion in the ___, results in slow speech, difficulty in choosing words, or use of words that only approximate the correct word.
Adult males; adult females
___ show more lateralization than ___.
painting a picture
Which of the following functions would most likely be controlled by the representational hemisphere of the cerebrum?
precentral gyrus in the left frontal lobe
After a stoke a patient complains about lack of sensitivity in her right hand. The stroke most likely affected the
vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
The ___ is not a motor cranial nerve.
the trigeminal nerve (V)
This is the largest of the cranial nerves and the most important sensory nerve of the face.
the vagus nerve (X)
This nerve innervates most of the viscera in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
the trochlear nerve (IV)
This figure shows the base of the brain. What does "8" represent?