In Greek means to "reveal." A vision of history as tending toward a divinely ordered goal, often in two stages: a present age of oppression to be followed by an age of triumph for the righteous. Typically has a binarism mentality ("us" against "them"), in which the end time is imminent and there will be a reversal of values, such as the first will be last, the lowly will be raised, the proud will be beaten down, the rich go away empty, and the hungry filled. Daniel 7 and Revelation are examples of apocalyptic writings. John the Baptist, Jesus, and Paul are apocalyptic preachers. The phrase "Repent, the Kingdom of God is near" is an apocalyptic expression used by John the Baptist and Jesus. Resurrection is part of an apocalyptic mindset. The Jewish designation for the first five books of the OT (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy). Also known as the Pentateuch. Jews believe it is the source of God's revelation of the divine law, and it is the defining symbol and identity for Judaism. In Matthew, Jesus is portrayed as the teacher of Torah, the fulfillment of the Torah, the radical interpreter of the Torah, and as the living Torah. The early church in Acts also disagreed over whether Gentile converts were required to fulfill the dietary and circumcision requirements of the Torah. Paul, in his letter to the Galatians, characterized this as a disagreement between him and Peter.