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mypsychkit test questions
Terms in this set (184)
Most professional psychologists work
colleges and universities
Darwin's theory of evolution suggests that all of an organism's characteristics
have functional significance.
A person who argues that the body and mind consist of physical matter and energy believes in
The work of Muller and many physiologists who followed him is characterized by
experimentation and logical deduction
The human brain
contains an abundance of circuits that can be modified through experience.
A researcher concluded that a drug made animals eat because it altered the insulin level in their blood. What kind of explanation did the researcher provide?
The phenomenon of blindsight confirms
consciousness is not a general property of all parts of the brain.
The right hemisphere of the brain of a person who has had a split-brain operation can no longer
The effects of a split-brain operation suggest that
information does not reach consciousness unless it reaches those parts of the brain responsible for verbal communication.
Models, first used by Descartes to explain how the body worked
were useful because they could be tested experimentally
A small _______ survived a mass extinction to become the direct ancestors of the _______.
Which is the only true statement about animal research?
Behavior cannot be studied using tissue cultures or computers.
_______ refers to the philosophical view in which the actions of spirits are used to explain human behavior.
The statement that consciousness is a physiological function is supported by the studies in which
damage to our brain can alter our self-awareness
The symptoms of epilepsy can be controlled by surgical transaction of the
A key function of the left hemisphere (for most persons
is the control of language
Which of the following pairs are least likely to belong together?
Language function; right hemisphere
_______ refers to a scientific explanation in which a complex phenomenon is explained in terms of a simpler one.
Which of the following would be most consistent with the view of mind and body held by Rene Descartes
The movements of animals represent mechanical effects triggered by environmental stimuli.
The view that specific stimuli activate different sensory channels in the brain was proposed by
Paul Broca concluded that _______ is a key function of the ________.
language; left hemisphere
The idea that useful effects can be traced to the natural characteristics of an organism is termed
A genetic mutation in an offspring is most likely
be deleterious for that offspring
A professional trained to diagnose and to treat central nervous system diseases is known as a(n)
A monist would argue that mind and body are composed of energy and matter.
Animism is the belief that mind and body are separate entities.
Blindsight" suggests that consciousness is localized to some, but not all, parts of the brain.
Galvani's experiment proved that the muscles of the body can be activated by electrical signals.
_______ synapses _______.
Axoaxonic; regulate neurotransmitter release
When nerves in PNS are damaged, Schwann cells
form cylinders to guide the new axon sprouts.
Large synaptic vesicles are produced in the _______ and are transported to the _________.
soma; terminal buttons
What ion plays a crucial role in propelling synaptic vesicles toward presynaptic membrane?
What is the correct sequence of structures encountered by neural information as it travels along a neuron?
dendrites to soma to axon to terminal buttons
Na+ enters the cell
What role does the inhibitory interneuron play in preventing a withdrawal reflex that would make you drop a hot casserole on the floor?
It inhibits a motor neuron.
Ligands are chemicals that
attach to binding sites
If the membrane of an axon receives a sufficiently large depolarization, the resulting rapid reversal of charge is called a(n)
Neurotransmitters are released when
synaptic vesicles spill their contents into the synaptic cleft.
During an IPSP
K+ leaves the cell.
The membrane potential is the result of two forces
diffusion and electrostatic pressure.
Postsynaptic receptors bind with molecules of neurotransmitter
open neurotransmitter-dependent ion channels
bind with metabotropic receptors in the membrane.
Research to determine genome sequences indicates that the ______ correlates well with the ____ of the organism.
amount of non-coding DNA; complexity
Saltatory conduction is advantageous because
less energy is required to operate the sodium-potassium transporters.
Sodium-potassium transporters keep the intracellular concentration of
Some substances in the blood cannot enter the brain because
capillaries in the brain do not have gaps.
At most synapses, postsynaptic potentials are terminated
A neuron's own neurotransmitter, detected by its presynaptic autoreceptors,
inhibits the synthesis or release of that neurotransmitter.
In the ____ form of neurotransmitter release, the terminal button becomes slightly ____ and pieces of ______ become new synaptic vesicles.
merge and recycle; larger; endosomes
Action potentials are conveyed along the ______ to the terminal buttons
The ____ neuron is the most common nerve cell type in the central nervous system.
The membrane of a nerve cell is comprised of
a double layer of lipid molecules.
The formation of myelin around nerve axons is accomplished by
Activation by toxins of cells within the area postrema would be predicted to produce
nausea and vomiting
The ______ is defined as the difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the axon membrane in the absence of stimulation
resting membrane potential
Movement of the axon membrane potential from -70 mV to -90 mV would be termed a(n)
Neurons in the hypothalamus
control the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system.
The principal structures of the tectum are the
superior and inferior colliculi.
The meninges and subarachnoid space surround the brain in the following order, beginning with the outer layer:
dura mater, arachnoid membrane, subarachnoid space, pia mater.
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the
In the central nervous system, neurons develop in the
ventricular zone of the neural tube.
The three major parts of the brain are the
forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain
The anterior pituitary gland produces
The spinal cord is ___________ the vertebral column.
_______ axons bring sensory information into the brain and spinal cord and ______ axons leave the spinal cord through the ventral roots.
The reticular formation
plays a role in sleep and arousal.
The most important structures of the limbic system are the limbic cortex, the
hippocampus, and the amygdale
The cranial nerve that controls the parasympathetic function of organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities is called the
The thalamus is responsible for
most of the neural input received by the cerebral cortex.
The periaqueductal gray matter is so called because of its location and an abundance of
Neurons that do not establish synaptic connections with a postsynaptic cell
are destroyed through apoptosis
preserves important functions even if mutations occurs
The ______surrounds the third ventricle and its two most important structures are the _______.
diencephalon; thalamus and the hypothalamus
After cerebrospinal fluid has circulated through the brain and subarachnoid space it is
reabsorbed into the blood supply
As you look down on the snake, you see its _____ surface, and it slithers along the ground on its _____ surface.
The limbic system plays a role in
emotional behavior, learning, and memory.
The two components of the autonomic nervous system are the
sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division
___________ leave the spinal cord through the ventral root.
The anatomical term "pons" means
The _______ surface of the body of an alligator is closest to the ground.
Rostral is to caudal as
anterior is to posterior.
The term _______ means "afterbrain."
Neurogenesis has been shown to occur within the ______ and the ______ of adult rat brain.
hippocampus; olfactory bulb
Rakic argues that the difference in brain size between humans and chimpanzees results from
delayed termination of the symmetrical and asymmetrical periods of division in the human brain relative to the chimpanzee brain.
The _______ cortical lobe contains the primary somatosensory cortex.
Another name for motor association cortex
Damage to axons that innervate the caudate nucleus and the putamen would be expected to produce
tremors, muscle weakness, and poor balance.
The _______ comprise the midbrain
tegmentum and tectum
Morphine acts on neurons within the _______ to produce analgesia (reduced pain perception).
The metencephalon is comprised of the
pons and cerebellum.
The terminal buttons of preganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic nervous system secrete the transmitter ______, whereas
left hemisphere is specialized for
serial analysis of info (reading and writing)
right hemisphere is specialized for
synthesis of information. (reading a map)
frontal cortex is devoted to
programing of motor function
occcipital and temporal lobes play key roles in
vision and audition
A(n) ______ is the most common route for administering drugs to small animals and a(n) _____ is never used with small animals
intraperitoneal injection; sublingual administration
The fastest way to have a drug reach the brain is to administer it through
an intravenous injection
receptor blocker is a synonym for
NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, and kainite receptors all respond to
Axonal varicosities _____ norepinephrine
A placebo effect
can have physiological causes
One of the necessary conditions for the NMDA receptor to open is ______.
depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
The therapeutic index of a drug is
a measure of a drug's margin of safety.
Many peptides that are released along with a neurotransmitter may serve to regulate the
sensitivity of postsynaptic receptors to the neurotransmitter.
Repeated administration of a drug
can produce sensitization
Most neural communication involves the release of either ______, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, or ______, an excitatory
Some neurons contain presynaptic heteroreceptors that are found in the
second terminal button at an axoaxonic synapse.
Some neurons contain presynaptic heteroreceptors that are found in the
second terminal button at an axoaxonic synapse.
For most neurotransmitters, termination of the postsynaptic potential occurs when molecules of the neurotransmitter
taken back into the terminal buttons
The precursor of dopamine and norepinephrine is ______, and their synthesis is interrupted by _____.
Drugs that bind with and stimulate dendritic autoreceptors
produce an inhibitory hyperpolarization
A drug that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter acts as
Endogenous opioids are
neuromodulators produced in the brain.
Benzodiazepines bind with _____ receptors and
GABAA; have an anxiolytic effect
______ blocks muscarinic receptors and ______ blocks nicotinic
The four monoamines are
epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin
A(n) _______ drug is one that is produced from outside the body.
The ______ is the most common route of drug administration in humans.
The term ______ means "anxious misery
Drugs that block or inhibit postsynaptic receptor effects are termed
Damage to the _______ cholinergic system would be expected to impair learning.
The postsynaptic action of acetylcholine is terminated via
enzymatic destruction by acetylcholinesterase.
Damage to the _______ dopaminergic system would be expected to produce muscle tremors, limb rigidity, and difficulty in movement control.
The activity of MAO-A is blocked by administration of the drug
The synthesis precursor for serotonin is
The term "opioid" refers to ______, while the term "opiates" refers to ______.
endogenous chemicals; exogenous drugs
Summarize the activity of acetylcholine from synthesis to termination of transmitter effect .
ACh is formed from choline and acetyl-coA in the presence of choline acetyltransferase. ACh is released into synapses and has effects at 2 receptor types: nicotinic and muscarinic. Action potentials release ACh; botulinum toxin prevents ACh release; black widow spider venom stimulates ACh release. Synaptic levels of Ach are reduced enzymatic degradation from acetylcholinesterase.
SQUIDS are used to detect
To account for incidental brain damage when lesions are produced, researchers
produce sham lesions
Immunocytochemical methods are used to
locate peptides and proteins.
Researchers using CT or MRI
can study the living brain without operating on the patient
Targeted mutations are deliberately mutated genes that
fail to produce a functional protein
An advantage of chemical stimulation over electrical stimulation of the brain is that
the effects are more localized
One of the difficulties in using electrical brain stimulation as a research tool is that stimulation
can never duplicate natural neural processes
Double labeling techniques permit researchers to determine what chemicals a neuron contains and
their connections with other neurons
Using a microtome, researchers can
slice tissue into thin sections
Using a stereotaxic atlas, researchers can
determine the approximate location of structures deep within the brain.
To study the effects of chemicals on the activity of single cells, researchers use ______ methods.
______ labeling methods are used to trace ______ axons which carry information _______ a brain structure.
Retrograde; afferent; toward
Functional MRI (fMRI
permits the measuring of regional brain metabolism
Which of these methods produces the most selective brain lesions
excitatory amino acids
Using a stereotaxic apparatus, researchers can
make subcortical lesions in the brain.
To search for a particular messenger RNA, researchers use
in situ hybridization.
The results of lesions studies are often difficult to interpret because
no one brain region or neural circuit is solely responsible for a behavior.
Microdialysis is used to measure the
secretions of the brain
The metabolic activity in the brain of a laboratory animal can be measured by giving an injection of _____ and analyzing the results using ______.
The ventral stream of visual association cortex recognizes
the identity and color of an object
Retinal disparity helps us to recognize
Inferior temporal cortex performs the analysis of
form and color
Neurons in area V5
respond to movement and show directional sensitivity
Retinal ganglion cells use a(n) _________ coding system
Optic nerves join together at the __________, where half of the axons cross to the opposite side of the brain.
Hubel and Wiesel first suggested that orientation-sensitive neurons in the visual cortex respond best to __________, but other research indicates the best stimulus is ___________.
lines and edges; sine-wave gratings
People with cerebral achromatopsia have
lost some or all of their color vision.
Analysis of optic flow seems to be a function of the
Striate cortex is organized into
modules, each surrounding a pair of CO blobs
The first step in visual perception occurs when light
causes a photopigment to split into its two constituents
consists of several regions that each respond to a particular kind of visual information.
If a color is fully saturated, the radiation contains
Simultanagnosia, one of the symptoms of Balint's syndrome, is the inability
perceive more than one object in a group
People with prosopagnosia
do not recognize faces
Kuffler found that the receptive field of cat ganglion cells resembles
a circle surrounded by a ring
Foveal vision is more acute than peripheral vision because
the receptor-to-axon relationships are approximately equal in the fovea.
People who cannot recognize common objects by sight have
apperceptive visual agnosia
Neurons in area TE
appear to participate in the recognition of objects
The primary function of the dorsal stream of visual association cortex may be
to direct visually-guided movements
When low frequency information is removed from an image of an object, it becomes
more difficult to identify
Neurons in subarea V4 of extrastriate cortex
respond to a variety of wavelengths of light
CO blobs of the striate cortex
contain color sensitive neurons
Neurons that are specialized for the detection of physical stimuli are termed
An indicator of the importance of vision for humans is that about ______% of our cerebral cortex is devoted to visual analyses.
The color attribute of _____ corresponds to that of light ______.
The layer of cells that is found on the interior of the back of the eye form the
The function of glutamate released from the photoreceptor in the dark is to ______ the _______.
hyperpolarize; bipolar cells
The ______ cells are the first point along the visual pathways at which action potentials can be recorded.
Another name for striate cortex is
the optic radiations
The retina of a human contains
four distinct photopigments
The parvocellular system receives input from _____, whereas the koniocellular system receives input from_____.
red and green cones; blue cones
Neurons located between the blob regions of a striate cortex module are insensitive to
Visual information passed through the dorsal stream projects to ____ and is involved in ____.
parietal association cortex; the analysis of where an object is located in space
______ involves an inability to perceive or identify a stimulus via a particular sensory modality.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to temporarily inactivate brain neurons. Assuming that TMS were to be applied to an area in the human cortex (area MT/MST) that is analogous to area V5 in primate brain, one would expect such stimulation to impair
the perception of movement
Research by Goodale and colleagues suggests that the key function of the dorsal visual stream is to
guide motor movements.