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The dominant relational culture in Jesus's day. Honor is like a currency that gives people status in society (much like money does in modern Western societies). Honor is granted according to what the society values and often promotes a more group-oriented society. Conversely, one receives shame by not conforming to the established standards of good and bad. Jesus's teaching often pushed against aspects of the honor-shame culture. The first become last (Matt. 19:30), the persecuted and ridiculed are honored (Matt. 5:10-12), the lame and blind and poor are welcomed and lifted up (Luke 14:15-24).