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Chapter 11: The Apostle Paul's Life and Teaching

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Roman citizenship
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A status of political and legal privilege, available only to free people (not slaves). Citizenship was given if both parents were Roman citizens, but also could be granted by generals and emperors. Male Roman citizens were given several privileges and protections that were defined by the Roman state, while Roman women experienced a more limited range of privileges.
Paul's theology of being joined to Christ ("in Christ," "with Christ," "through Christ," etc.), best understood through four images: (1) union refers to a profound spiritual connection to Christ through mutual indwelling by the Spirit; (2) participation refers to sharing in the key events of Christ's narrative, such as his suffering, death, burial, resurrection, ascension, and glorification; (3) identification refers to shifting our allegiance from Adam and the realm of sin and death to Christ and his realm of righteousness and peace; (4) incorporation refers to being members together in a corporate entity shaped by Christ.
A view popularized by scholars such as E. P. Sanders, J. D. G. Dunn, and N. T. Wright that critiques the typical Protestant approach to Paul's view of Judaism. For these scholars, Judaism was not a "salvation by works" religion but rather relied on God's grace. The problem with law-keeping Jews in Paul's day was that the law identified them as God's people, which was a source of pride and boasting. Therefore, Paul's critique of such Jews is more about how to identify the people of God: they are identified by faith in Christ and by having the Spirit, not by keeping the law of Moses.