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Arts and Humanities
AP Government- Media
Terms in this set (22)
-Includes all forms of communication that convey information to the general public
-Examples: Newspapers, magazines, radio, television, Internet
What is the purpose of mass media in a democracy?
-Link interest groups and political parties; link citizens and government
-Freedom of the press (which covers all media) is an essential element of democracy
How have changes in technology impacted mass media?
-Changes in technology affect how citizens get news, form political opinions, and interact with government
-Currently, the rise of cable TV and the Internet are producing fundamental changes with unknown long-term effects
What are current trends in U.S. mass media?
-Decline of newspapers: readership shrinking and survival of many papers in doubt
-Rise of the Internet: more people are getting their news from websites
-Growth of cable TV: multiplicity of news programs provides range of choices unavailable previously
-Newspapers started in colonial times and reached peak influence in early 20th century; in decline since 1950s
-Magazines devoted to public affairs started in mid 19th century, attracted mass readership in 20th century, but also now in decline
-Led to immediate reporting of news; Allowed President to speak directly to public
-Franklin Roosevelt successfully used radio to influence public opinion in "Fireside Chats"
-Continues as important news delivery vehicle
-Leading source of news for U.S. public
-Televised speeches and news conferences give President ability to communicate directly with public
-Televised candidate debates important, especially in presidential rage
How has the rise of cable tv impacted Mass Media?
-Produced multiple news programs, including ones with particular biases
-Development of news networks with 24-hour news coverage
-C-SPAN cable channels created to provide liver coverage of Congress, although audience is small
How has the Internet impacted Mass Media?
-Growing source of news for Americans
-Provides vehicle for political parties and interest groups to communicate with members and quickly take action
-Interactive: Citizens can now easily and quickly "speak" to officials, form political groups, organize, etc.
How has the development of multiple news programs/sites impacted mass media?
-Growth of cable TV and Internet has produced multiple news programs and sites, rather than just a few choices
-Objectivity in news delivery now less important as viewers often choose programs/sites that share their views
What role does mass media play in politics?
-Inform the public
-Influence public opinion
-Influence what topics get coverage and become issues
-Watchdog on government through investigative reporting
Explain Mass Media Ownership
-Mass media is privately owned in the U.S.
-Freedom of the press provides U.S. mass media broad guarantees from governmental control/interference
-U.S. mass media is dependent on advertising revenues
How is media regulated by the government?
-Little government control over print media and Internet
-More government control over broadcast media (radio and TV) since federal government regulates the use of radio frequencies and issue broadcast licenses
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
-Regulates broadcast media (radio, TV, telephone, cable, etc.), enforcing federal laws
-Independent regulatory agency insulated from direct control by President or Congress
-People—media executives, editors, reporters—who decide what news to present in time/space available
-Not all events become news
-Gatekeepers determine what stories will become news based mostly on their perceptions of audience interest
-Tendency of media to focus on which candidate is winning, not on issues of an election
-Part of larger tendency of media to focus on events, not in-depth coverage of problems/issues
-Refers to tendency of broadcast media to cover most stories in a minute or two
-Makes presentation of complex issues/problems difficult or impossible
-Often most controversial quotes of newsmakers taken out of context
-News events staged by a candidate, official, or interest group to get the attention of the media or influence media coverage
-Examples: press briefings, press conferences, photo-ops, visits to special locations, speeches, etc.
What is the relationship between the news media and the President?
-President enjoys unequaled access to national news media and unequaled media coverage
-Presidential press secretary and his/her office work to present news in ways favorable to President
-News organizations maintain reporters to uncover news and report it; constitute the press corps
-Washington press corps is the largest—reports on news relating to government
-White House press corps constitutes 1/3 of Washington press corps
Leaks to News Media
-Unauthorized releases of information to the news media by officials
-Purpose can be to expose government or individual conduct or misconduct
-Not always unauthorized—purpose can be to float an idea, denying the story if it meets resistance
What is the relationship between the news media and Congress?
-Congress does not get as much media coverage as the President
-Coverage limited to passage of major legislation, oversight investigation, scandals, and some conformation hearings
-Few members get media coverage outside their district/state
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ap Government Unit 1
AP Government: Political Beliefs and Behaviors
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