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Analects of Confucius

a book of the teachings of Confucius; the primary book of Confucianism

Bronze Age

the period when metallurgy was developed beginning in approximately 3000BCE

Byzantine Empire

a continuation of the Roman Empire in the East after its division in 395

Code of Hammurabi

first written legal code; created in Mesopotamia


an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia

Eight Fold Path

the way to reach Nirvana in Buddhism

Four Noble Truths

Buddha's primary teachings particularly in relation to the releasing of all earthly desire

Great Wall

the longest wall on Earth created by the Qin Dynasty to protect from invaders

Han Dynasty

Chinese dynasty that succeeded the Qin in 202 BCE; ruled for the next 400 years; established by peasant revolt after death of Shi Huangdi; reduce taxes and brutalities; expanded empire; Emperor Wu Ti (enforcer of peace); used the Confucian Civil Service Exam


the principles and ideals associated with classical Greek civilization

The Huns

a nomadic group from Northern Asia powerful during the Han Dynasty

Indian Ocean Trade

connected to Europe, Africa, and China; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion

Jewish Diaspora

the scattering of the Jewish people outside their homeland beginning about 586 BCE


a philosophy based idea that humanity must be strictly controlled by the law and that everyone under the law is the government's to do with what it will

Pax Romana

a period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180; also known as the Roman peace


articles of Greek and Roman civilization

Qin Shihaungdi

the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty; centralized and standardized laws, currencies and units of measurement; began construction of the Great Wall of China

Shang Dynasty

Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy; remembered for their art of bronze casting

Siddhartha Gautama

the supreme Buddha; the founder of Buddhism

Silk Road Trade

a network of paths cutting across Asia where merchants traded valuable Chinese silk;, established links between the empires of Han China and Rome; spread Buddhism, Christianity and Islam

The Vedas of Hinduism

Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6th century B.C.E.


temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped


A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru that ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.


a civilization from 300-600CE in Southern Mexico and Central America; ruled in city-states; created calender; fought wars for slaves and sacrifices

Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

the two principal cities in the Indus river valley civilization


a Chinese philosophy that emphasizes reciprocal relationships; a universal religion


a civilization that ruled through force and conquest in the Basin of Mexico between 1427 and 1519


principal city of the Aztec Empire

Neolithic Revolution

shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to keeping animals and growing of food between 8000 and 6000 BCE

Colombian Exchange

exchange of living things between the old and new worlds

Lao Tzi

founder of Taoism


the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers where the first civilizations rose up


In Hindu belief, the ultimate goal of existance, which is to achieve union with brahman; similar to Buddhist nirvana and possibly created in response to Buddhism to make Hinduism more appealing to the people


the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires

Taoism (Daoism)

a philosophy based in China that believes in balance and harmony, based on the release of personal desires; based on a mystical understanding of the harmony of life; a universal religion


the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud


the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Qur'an, the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a god, Allah.


a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior


a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire


the kind of government that rules through the claim that they are divinely inpired

The Torah

the primary holy book in Jeudism

The Covenant (Judaism)

the promise by God to the Jews told of in the Torah that if the Jews followed God as their only God then he would give them the promised land


the social and political system used in Europe during the Middle Ages that operated through a system of mutual pledges of service and subservience for benefit


lesser feudal lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater feudal lord -- in a military capacity


belief in a single God; the first religion to follow this principal was Judaism followed by Christianity and Islam


belief in multiple Gods


"old stone" the time period where most of human pre-history took place


a communal society where everyone is equal; a classless society


a society based on agriculture


theater state in power in India during the Indian Golden age


emperor in the Maurya dynasty; spread Buddhism and peace

Maurya Dynasty

Dynasty that united most of India under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya; greatest ruler was Asoka who converted to Buddhism and was instrumental in its spread.

Mandate of Heaven

the justification of rebellion that stated that the current regime had fallen out of favor with the gods and so should be removed; used for the first time to justify the Zhou taking over from the Shang


the word used to refer to city-states in Ancient Greece


Greek city-state known for art and commerce


Greek city-state known for being agricultural and militaristic

Wu Ti

"the Warrior Emperor" during the Han Dynasty; greatly enlarged the Han Empire

Rock and Pillar Edicts

the moral laws of the Mauryan Empire detailing how to live a right and moral life which were carved on rocks and pillars throughout the empire

Olmec and Chavin

the two ancient civilizations not to develop in river valleys


most important Mayan city-state


Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon

Persian Wars

Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon

Delian League

an alliance headed by Athens of all Greek city-states to fight the Persians

Peloponnesian Wars

a series of wars fought between Athens and Sparta in the 400s BC, ending in a victory for Sparta


the land-owning nobles in the Roman social structure


all free men in the Roman social structure

Twelve Tables of Rome

what the laws of Rome were known as; where the concept of "innocent until proven guilty" originates


came into power in 322 and built Constantinople on the site of Byzantium; Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians


Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part

Five Pillars of Islam

the way to achieve salvation in Islam; confession of Faith, praying 5 times a day, charity, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca

Alexander the Great

king of Macedon who conquered Greece, Egypt and Persia; founded Alexandria


a theocratice Islamic empire ruled by the Caliph


a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government

Abu Bakr

the first Caliph after Mohammad died in 632

Umayyad Dynasty

first caliphate; established after the death of Ali and not headed by Ali's son which split Islam into Sunni and Shi'ite; moved capital from Mecca to Damascus;


Last agreed upon Caliph

Shi'ite (Shia)

believes that the leader of Islam should be a blood relative of Mohammad


beleive that the leader of Islam should be the one most capable of leading well

Abbasid Dynasty

the second Caliphate; Shi'ite; founded by Mohammad's uncle Abu al-Abbas; built Baghdad; first empire to use bills instead of carrying coins for fear of robbery; defeated the T'ang for control of the Silk Road


the most important book in Islam

Dome of the Rock

most important Mosque in Islam; built on the sight of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem

Mohammad's Night Journey

a vision Mohammad had in which he saw himself fly over the desert and ascend to God over the Dome of the Rock where he received the last part of the Qur'an


"rebirth" of Classical knowledge based on the principals of humanism, individualism, and secularism


the belief in human potential and achievements


the belief in value of an individual and emphasis on the celebration of individual achievements


the emphasis on the here and-now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly

Johannes Gutenberg

the inventor of the printing press


Rennaissance writer, author of The Prince

Sir Thomas More

wrote Utopia which gave rise to the term Utopia about the perfect Christian society

95 Theses

a list of statements criticizing the practices of the Catholic Church printed in 1517 by Martin Luther

Martin Luther

German monk who wrote the 95 theses; founder of the Lutheran branch of Christianity

Diet of Worms

a meeting of Church officials and princes in 1521 during which Martin Luther was allowed to speak before he was excommunicated and forced to go into hiding


a branch of Christianity founded by Martin Luther that deviated from Catholicism in the doctrine that salvation was possible through faith alone

John Calvin

founder of Calvinism and the protestant theocracy in Geneva


the branch of protestant Christianity founded by John Calvin that believes in predetermination

Church of England

Founded by Henry VIII with a doctrine very similar to Catholicism but with himself at the head so he could be divorced from his wife because of infertility

Henry VIII

King of England from 1509-1547; created the Church of England so he could be divorced from his wife due to problems of infertility married six times and had 4 surviving children

Eastern Orthodox Christianity

A branch of Christianity that developed in the Byzantine Empire and that did not recognize the Pope as its supreme leader but rather recognized a patriarch


ruled the Byzantine Empire from 527-565; created law code after the ideal of ancient Roman law

Hagia Sophia

first a cathedral, now a mosque, built by Justinian in Constantinople


Russian Prince of Kiev who converted the city from paganism to Christianity

St. Cyril

spread Orthodox Christianity throughout Eastern Europe; created a slavic alphabet that is still used today


the estates granted to vassals by the lord that they were pledged to which later became known as manors


group of Germanic people living in Gaul, which would later become France, who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis; Charlemagne was also one of this group

Charles Martel

unified Spain and Italy against Muslim Invasions and led Christian forces in the Battle of Tours

Battle of Tours

a battle between Christian and Muslim forces in 732 when the Muslim forces had advanced into France


Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800


A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain


Muslims who attacked Europe; converted to Christianity; established Hungary

Treaty of Verdun

treaty that divided the Holy Roman Empire between Charlemagne's three grandsons in 843


a seafaring Scandinavian people who frequently invaded Europe during the Middle Ages

Three-Field System

part of the agricultural revolution; farming technique that left one field out of three sallow for a year to replenish the soil


In feudalism, peasants that were tied to the land that they worked

Hanseatic League

An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century


a series of military campaigns between 1000-1400 by armies of Christians spearheaded by the Pope to convert non-Christians, specifically Muslims, and take over the Holy Land


A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century


a set of trials led by Pope Gregory IX that formally interrogated and persecuted all non-believers of Christianity

Magna Carta

a document signed in 1215 by King John of England that limited the power of the king by reinstating the feudal rights of nobles and establishing an assembly of nobles; the first document in history to limit the power of a monarch

William the Conquer

united England and became king in 1066

Joan of Arc

led France in revolt against English rule in the 1400s and forced the British out of the entire French territory

Hundred Years' War

Series of campaigns (1337-1453) over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban


From Latin caesar, the Russian title for a monarch

Ivan III

The Russian ruler of the Muscovy; broke from the Mongols in 1480 when he stopped paying tribute and declared Russia free

T'ang Dynasty

ruled China from 618 to 907 during the time of the rise of Buddhism; often referred to as China's golden age; worked off a tribute system in it's outer territories

Zhou Dynasty

the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism; first to use the Mandate of Heaven to gain power

Qin Dynasty

the Chinese dynasty that ruled from 246 BC to 206 BC that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall

Sui Dynasty

reunified China after the fall of the Han; ruled from 581-618 CE; built Grand Canal and rebuilt Great Wall; ruled violently but productively; introduced equal field system to reduce social gap

Song Dynasty

followed the Yuan Dynasty; founded by Tai Zu; reunified China after Mongol rule; ruled 960-1279; invented gunpowder and the magnetic compass; known for art and literature

Yuan Dynasty

Dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song; ruled from 1279-1368

Emperor Xuanzong

T'ang emperor that greatly expanded Chinese territory

Confucian Civil Service Examination

the exam that Chinese bureaucrats passed to serve in state; based on Confucian concepts; Han origins


the eastern terminal of the Silk Road; built by the T'ang

Empress Wu Zhao

the only Chinese empress; ruled corruptly through violence and seduction during the T'ang dynasty; ruled 690-705; encourages Buddhism; inspires the law that no woman can again be Empress of China


Philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucian and Buddhist thought; most important of the early Neo-Confucianists was the Chinese thinker Zhu Xi

Zhu Xi

most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action


"way of the gods"; religion of the early Japanese culture; worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offered food and prayers to gods and nature spirits


Sun goddess in shintoism; believed to be the mother of all Japanese emperors


belief that everything has a soul or spirit


all forces of nature in Japanese; what is worshiped in Shinto; the ultimate goal of Shinto is to become part of nature

Yamato Clan

important Japanese ruling family in the 400s; first rulers of Japan to claim to be descended from Amaterasu

Taika Reforms

Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army


The supreme military commander in feudal Japan


a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai


Literally 'those who serve,' the hereditary military elite of feudal Japan


traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living

Delhi Sultanate

an Islamic state set up in India by Sultan Mahmud lasted in 1206 AD; the first Muslim empire in India

Genghis Khan

leader who united the Mongols and began invasion of China in 1234; oversaw the conquering of the Mongol Empire

Pax Mongolica

"Mongol Peace"; the phrase used to describe the safety and ease of trade and communication in the Mongol-ruled world

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