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600 terms

World History AP Key Terms

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Analects of Confucius
a book of the teachings of Confucius; the primary book of Confucianism
Bronze Age
the period when metallurgy was developed beginning in approximately 3000BCE
Byzantine Empire
a continuation of the Roman Empire in the East after its division in 395
Code of Hammurabi
first written legal code; created in Mesopotamia
Cuneiform
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
Eight Fold Path
the way to reach Nirvana in Buddhism
Four Noble Truths
Buddha's primary teachings particularly in relation to the releasing of all earthly desire
Great Wall
the longest wall on Earth created by the Qin Dynasty to protect from invaders
Han Dynasty
Chinese dynasty that succeeded the Qin in 202 BCE; ruled for the next 400 years; established by peasant revolt after death of Shi Huangdi; reduce taxes and brutalities; expanded empire; Emperor Wu Ti (enforcer of peace); used the Confucian Civil Service Exam
Hellenism
the principles and ideals associated with classical Greek civilization
The Huns
a nomadic group from Northern Asia powerful during the Han Dynasty
Indian Ocean Trade
connected to Europe, Africa, and China; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion
Jewish Diaspora
the scattering of the Jewish people outside their homeland beginning about 586 BCE
Legalism
a philosophy based idea that humanity must be strictly controlled by the law and that everyone under the law is the government's to do with what it will
Pax Romana
a period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180; also known as the Roman peace
Classical
articles of Greek and Roman civilization
Qin Shihaungdi
the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty; centralized and standardized laws, currencies and units of measurement; began construction of the Great Wall of China
Shang Dynasty
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy; remembered for their art of bronze casting
Siddhartha Gautama
the supreme Buddha; the founder of Buddhism
Silk Road Trade
a network of paths cutting across Asia where merchants traded valuable Chinese silk;, established links between the empires of Han China and Rome; spread Buddhism, Christianity and Islam
The Vedas of Hinduism
Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but written down in sacred books from the 6th century B.C.E.
Ziggurats
temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped
Inca
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru that ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.
Maya
a civilization from 300-600CE in Southern Mexico and Central America; ruled in city-states; created calender; fought wars for slaves and sacrifices
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
the two principal cities in the Indus river valley civilization
Confucianism
a Chinese philosophy that emphasizes reciprocal relationships; a universal religion
Aztec
a civilization that ruled through force and conquest in the Basin of Mexico between 1427 and 1519
Tenochtitlan
principal city of the Aztec Empire
Neolithic Revolution
shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to keeping animals and growing of food between 8000 and 6000 BCE
Colombian Exchange
exchange of living things between the old and new worlds
Lao Tzi
founder of Taoism
Mesopotamia
the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers where the first civilizations rose up
Moksha
In Hindu belief, the ultimate goal of existance, which is to achieve union with brahman; similar to Buddhist nirvana and possibly created in response to Buddhism to make Hinduism more appealing to the people
Nirvana
the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires
Taoism (Daoism)
a philosophy based in China that believes in balance and harmony, based on the release of personal desires; based on a mystical understanding of the harmony of life; a universal religion
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Islam
the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Qur'an, the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a god, Allah.
Christianity
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Buddhism
a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire
Theocracy
the kind of government that rules through the claim that they are divinely inpired
The Torah
the primary holy book in Jeudism
The Covenant (Judaism)
the promise by God to the Jews told of in the Torah that if the Jews followed God as their only God then he would give them the promised land
Feudalism
the social and political system used in Europe during the Middle Ages that operated through a system of mutual pledges of service and subservience for benefit
Vassals
lesser feudal lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater feudal lord -- in a military capacity
Monotheism
belief in a single God; the first religion to follow this principal was Judaism followed by Christianity and Islam
Polytheism
belief in multiple Gods
Paleolithic
"old stone" the time period where most of human pre-history took place
Egalitarian
a communal society where everyone is equal; a classless society
Agrarian
a society based on agriculture
Gupta
theater state in power in India during the Indian Golden age
Ashoka
emperor in the Maurya dynasty; spread Buddhism and peace
Maurya Dynasty
Dynasty that united most of India under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya; greatest ruler was Asoka who converted to Buddhism and was instrumental in its spread.
Mandate of Heaven
the justification of rebellion that stated that the current regime had fallen out of favor with the gods and so should be removed; used for the first time to justify the Zhou taking over from the Shang
Polis
the word used to refer to city-states in Ancient Greece
Athens
Greek city-state known for art and commerce
Sparta
Greek city-state known for being agricultural and militaristic
Wu Ti
"the Warrior Emperor" during the Han Dynasty; greatly enlarged the Han Empire
Rock and Pillar Edicts
the moral laws of the Mauryan Empire detailing how to live a right and moral life which were carved on rocks and pillars throughout the empire
Olmec and Chavin
the two ancient civilizations not to develop in river valleys
Tikal
most important Mayan city-state
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon
Delian League
an alliance headed by Athens of all Greek city-states to fight the Persians
Peloponnesian Wars
a series of wars fought between Athens and Sparta in the 400s BC, ending in a victory for Sparta
Patricians
the land-owning nobles in the Roman social structure
Plebeians
all free men in the Roman social structure
Twelve Tables of Rome
what the laws of Rome were known as; where the concept of "innocent until proven guilty" originates
Constantine
came into power in 322 and built Constantinople on the site of Byzantium; Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
Diocletian
Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part
Five Pillars of Islam
the way to achieve salvation in Islam; confession of Faith, praying 5 times a day, charity, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca
Alexander the Great
king of Macedon who conquered Greece, Egypt and Persia; founded Alexandria
Caliphate
a theocratice Islamic empire ruled by the Caliph
Caliph
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Abu Bakr
the first Caliph after Mohammad died in 632
Umayyad Dynasty
first caliphate; established after the death of Ali and not headed by Ali's son which split Islam into Sunni and Shi'ite; moved capital from Mecca to Damascus;
Ali
Last agreed upon Caliph
Shi'ite (Shia)
believes that the leader of Islam should be a blood relative of Mohammad
Sunni
beleive that the leader of Islam should be the one most capable of leading well
Abbasid Dynasty
the second Caliphate; Shi'ite; founded by Mohammad's uncle Abu al-Abbas; built Baghdad; first empire to use bills instead of carrying coins for fear of robbery; defeated the T'ang for control of the Silk Road
Qur'an
the most important book in Islam
Dome of the Rock
most important Mosque in Islam; built on the sight of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem
Mohammad's Night Journey
a vision Mohammad had in which he saw himself fly over the desert and ascend to God over the Dome of the Rock where he received the last part of the Qur'an
Renaissance
"rebirth" of Classical knowledge based on the principals of humanism, individualism, and secularism
Humanism
the belief in human potential and achievements
Individualism
the belief in value of an individual and emphasis on the celebration of individual achievements
Secularism
the emphasis on the here and-now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly
Johannes Gutenberg
the inventor of the printing press
Machiavelli
Rennaissance writer, author of The Prince
Sir Thomas More
wrote Utopia which gave rise to the term Utopia about the perfect Christian society
95 Theses
a list of statements criticizing the practices of the Catholic Church printed in 1517 by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
German monk who wrote the 95 theses; founder of the Lutheran branch of Christianity
Diet of Worms
a meeting of Church officials and princes in 1521 during which Martin Luther was allowed to speak before he was excommunicated and forced to go into hiding
Lutheranism
a branch of Christianity founded by Martin Luther that deviated from Catholicism in the doctrine that salvation was possible through faith alone
John Calvin
founder of Calvinism and the protestant theocracy in Geneva
Calvinism
the branch of protestant Christianity founded by John Calvin that believes in predetermination
Church of England
Founded by Henry VIII with a doctrine very similar to Catholicism but with himself at the head so he could be divorced from his wife because of infertility
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509-1547; created the Church of England so he could be divorced from his wife due to problems of infertility married six times and had 4 surviving children
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
A branch of Christianity that developed in the Byzantine Empire and that did not recognize the Pope as its supreme leader but rather recognized a patriarch
Justinian
ruled the Byzantine Empire from 527-565; created law code after the ideal of ancient Roman law
Hagia Sophia
first a cathedral, now a mosque, built by Justinian in Constantinople
Vladimir
Russian Prince of Kiev who converted the city from paganism to Christianity
St. Cyril
spread Orthodox Christianity throughout Eastern Europe; created a slavic alphabet that is still used today
Fiefs
the estates granted to vassals by the lord that they were pledged to which later became known as manors
Franks
group of Germanic people living in Gaul, which would later become France, who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis; Charlemagne was also one of this group
Charles Martel
unified Spain and Italy against Muslim Invasions and led Christian forces in the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
a battle between Christian and Muslim forces in 732 when the Muslim forces had advanced into France
Charlemagne
Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800
Habsburg
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain
Magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe; converted to Christianity; established Hungary
Treaty of Verdun
treaty that divided the Holy Roman Empire between Charlemagne's three grandsons in 843
Vikings
a seafaring Scandinavian people who frequently invaded Europe during the Middle Ages
Three-Field System
part of the agricultural revolution; farming technique that left one field out of three sallow for a year to replenish the soil
Serfs
In feudalism, peasants that were tied to the land that they worked
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century
Crusades
a series of military campaigns between 1000-1400 by armies of Christians spearheaded by the Pope to convert non-Christians, specifically Muslims, and take over the Holy Land
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century
Inquisition
a set of trials led by Pope Gregory IX that formally interrogated and persecuted all non-believers of Christianity
Magna Carta
a document signed in 1215 by King John of England that limited the power of the king by reinstating the feudal rights of nobles and establishing an assembly of nobles; the first document in history to limit the power of a monarch
William the Conquer
united England and became king in 1066
Joan of Arc
led France in revolt against English rule in the 1400s and forced the British out of the entire French territory
Hundred Years' War
Series of campaigns (1337-1453) over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families
Urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Czar
From Latin caesar, the Russian title for a monarch
Ivan III
The Russian ruler of the Muscovy; broke from the Mongols in 1480 when he stopped paying tribute and declared Russia free
T'ang Dynasty
ruled China from 618 to 907 during the time of the rise of Buddhism; often referred to as China's golden age; worked off a tribute system in it's outer territories
Zhou Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism; first to use the Mandate of Heaven to gain power
Qin Dynasty
the Chinese dynasty that ruled from 246 BC to 206 BC that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
Sui Dynasty
reunified China after the fall of the Han; ruled from 581-618 CE; built Grand Canal and rebuilt Great Wall; ruled violently but productively; introduced equal field system to reduce social gap
Song Dynasty
followed the Yuan Dynasty; founded by Tai Zu; reunified China after Mongol rule; ruled 960-1279; invented gunpowder and the magnetic compass; known for art and literature
Yuan Dynasty
Dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song; ruled from 1279-1368
Emperor Xuanzong
T'ang emperor that greatly expanded Chinese territory
Confucian Civil Service Examination
the exam that Chinese bureaucrats passed to serve in state; based on Confucian concepts; Han origins
Chang'an
the eastern terminal of the Silk Road; built by the T'ang
Empress Wu Zhao
the only Chinese empress; ruled corruptly through violence and seduction during the T'ang dynasty; ruled 690-705; encourages Buddhism; inspires the law that no woman can again be Empress of China
Neo-Confucianism
Philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucian and Buddhist thought; most important of the early Neo-Confucianists was the Chinese thinker Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi
most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
Shinto
"way of the gods"; religion of the early Japanese culture; worshipped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offered food and prayers to gods and nature spirits
Amaterasu
Sun goddess in shintoism; believed to be the mother of all Japanese emperors
anamism
belief that everything has a soul or spirit
Kami
all forces of nature in Japanese; what is worshiped in Shinto; the ultimate goal of Shinto is to become part of nature
Yamato Clan
important Japanese ruling family in the 400s; first rulers of Japan to claim to be descended from Amaterasu
Taika Reforms
Attempt to remake Japanese monarch into an absolute Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army
Shogun
The supreme military commander in feudal Japan
Diamyo
a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Samurai
Literally 'those who serve,' the hereditary military elite of feudal Japan
Bushido
traditional code of the Japanese samurai which stressed courage and loyalty and self-discipline and simple living
Delhi Sultanate
an Islamic state set up in India by Sultan Mahmud lasted in 1206 AD; the first Muslim empire in India
Genghis Khan
leader who united the Mongols and began invasion of China in 1234; oversaw the conquering of the Mongol Empire
Pax Mongolica
"Mongol Peace"; the phrase used to describe the safety and ease of trade and communication in the Mongol-ruled world
Golden Horde
Mongol Khanate based in southern Russia founded by Batu; ruled through taking of tribute rather than bureaucracy as the other Khanates were
Great Khanate
Mongol Khanate that ruled China and Mongolia; quickly became the Yuan Dynasty as the Mongol's became assimilated into Chinese culture
Kublai Khan
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China; founded the Yuan Dynasty; built Beijing; received Marco Polo
Tamerlane
aka Timur Lang; recreated the Mongol Empire, leading conquest from Turkey to Mongolia, which disintegrated after his death; massacred thousands
Khanate of Chaghatai
Khanate ruled by Chagatai Khan; taken over the the Mughal empire soon after its fall
Ogedei Khan
son of Genghis Khan; his death stopped the Mongol advance into Europe which allowed Europe to remained relatively unharmed by Mongol rule compared to the rest of the world
Samarkand
capital of Tamerlane's empire; most central point on the Silk Road between Europe and Asia
Kush
a civilization that developed around the time of Ancient Egypt; conquered Egypt in 750BCE; center of iron working and trade with the capital Meroe
Axum
a civilization that rose to power in 200CE in Ethiopia; traded in Ivory and Gold; went through a period of Christianity and a period of Islam
Swahili
a l, a Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast
Mansa Musa
Mali ruler who built Timbuktu and made it a center of learning and trade; expanded the borders of Mali; made a pilgrimage to Mecca that established Mali in the Muslim world as a trading power
Machu Picchu
An ancient Inca fortress and temple city in the Andes northwest of Cuzco, Peru
Bubonic Plague
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing; High mortality rate and hard to contain; Disastrous for the Medieval European Population
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Dar-al-Islam
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Ignatius Loyola
Spanish soldier who founded the society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Council of Trent
a council called 3 times between 1545 and 1563 by Pope Paul III to discuss any needed reforms and to solidify church doctrine as part of the Counter-Reformation
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric theory
Galileo
Italian astronomer who invented the telescope and proved the heliocentric theory; also theorized inertia
Deism
The belief developed in the 1700s that God did create the universe but does not interfere in the workings of it; early theory of intelligent deign
The Enlightenment
a philosophical movement of the 18th century, characterized by belief in the power of human reason and by innovations in political, religious, and educational doctrine
Divine Right of Kings
a doctrine states that the right of ruling comes from God and not people's consent
Social Contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the government's protection
Thomas Hobbes
English enlightenment philosopher who wrote Leviathan that lived during the English revolution; believed that people are naturally born bad and selfish and so it was the job of the government to suppress these tendencies for the safety of the people
John Locke
English enlightenment philosopher who wrote Two Treaties on Government; believed that people are basically good and so are mostly capable of self rule; believed all men are born equal and have certain natural rights (life, liberty, property); believed that the job of government is to ensure the security of the population's natural rights
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French enlightenment philosopher who wrote the Social Contract; believed people are born good but are warped by society; believed strongly in democracy
Voltaire
Enlightenment philosopher who believed strongly in religious freedom
King Louis XIV
"Le Roi Soleil" (the sun king); ruled France by divine right from 1643 to 1715; fought many wars; built Versailles
Montesquieu
Enlightenment philosopher who theorized serperation of powers in a three branch government with executive, legislative and judicial branches
Enlightened Despot
an enlightened though still absolute ruler who used their power to implement social and political change
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who established the first school of navigation; sponsored voyages; thought that it was possible to get to India around Africa
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer; first to round the Cape of Good Hope; reached India and established trade relations
Christopher Columbus
Spanish financed explorer; sailed in 1492 in an attempt to reach India from the West believing the route to be shorter; landed in Cuba and the West Indies which he believed to be India
Treaty of Tordesillas
treaty between Spain and Portugal signed in 1494 that divided the world between the two powers approximately along the modern Brazilian border with Spain getting the West and Portugal getting the East
Amerigo Vespucci
namesake of America; made several voyages to South America in the 1500s; first to realize that the Americas were not India
Ponce de Leon
explored Florida in 1513 in search of the fountain of youth
Vasco de Balboa
Spanish explored who explored central America in 1513; first European explorer to reach the Pacific
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed around the tip of South America, the first to do so, in 1519; led the expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the globe
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada
Henry Hudson
English explorer who searched for a North-West passage to Asia; explored the Hudson river
Lateen Sails
a kind of triangular sail that allowed sailing regardless of the direction of the wind; regularly used on Indian Ocean routes to sail during monsoons
Magnetic compass
a navigational instrument borrowed from the Chinese that allowed sailors regardless of weather or sight lines
Hernan Cortez
Conquered the Aztecs in 1519 with 600 men and the help of neighboring groups; mistaken for a god by Aztec emperor Montezuma
Montezuma
last Aztec ruler; fell to the Aztecs; under the impression that Cortez was a god
Smallpox
a disease spread as a result of the Colombian Exchange that wiped out many American natives beginning in 1519 with Cortez's conquering of the Aztecs
Francisco Pizarro
invaded Peru in 1531 and conquered the Incas with superior weapons and disease by 1535
peninsulares
Spanish born in Spain who had moved to the new world; highest and ruling class in Spanish ruled Latin America
creoles
Spanish born of Spanish parent in the new world; second social class in Spanish ruled Latin America
mestizos
people who were a mix between Spanish and Native American ancestry; third social class in Spanish ruled Latin America with mulattos
mulattos
people who were a mix between Spanish and African; third social class in Spanish ruled Latin America with the mestizos
Encomienda system
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills
Colombian Exchange
the exchange of living things from 1500-1650 (including diseases, animals, plants) between the old and new world; key goods traded were silver, sugar, potatoes, horses and other livestock and corn
joint-stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders in which each shareholder contributes some money to the company and in return receives some share of the company's profits and debts first put into major use in 1555 by the Muscovy company
Muscovy Company
chartered in 1555; the first major joint stock company; an English joint-stock company the monopolized trade routes to Russia until 1698
Dutch East India Company
a government chartered joint-stock company created by the Dutch government in the early 1602 that monopolized trade to the Spice islands until driven out by the English
mercantilism
an economic strategy that reached peak popularity around the industrial revolution in which a country strove to create a beneficial trading balance by exporting more than it imported; helped lead to colonialism because of a need for markets and raw materials
Cape of Good Hope
Cape at the southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
Hapsburg
a royal German family that provided rulers for several European states and wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806
Act of Supremacy
act by Henry VIII that put the king of England at the head of the Church so founding the Church of England
Elizabethan Age
a period when England was ruled by Elizabeth I from 1558-1603 during which the Spanish Armada was defeated by England and England expanded commercially and colonially
British East India Company
a joint-stock company chartered by the British government that monopolized trade in India and controlled India for 200 years
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth after King Charles I was executed after the Parliamentary victory in the English Civil War
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland; power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War from 1642-1648 in which he was defeated; beheaded in 1649
James II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland; last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland; overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
Charles II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland who reigned during the Restoration; a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
English Commonwealth
the name of England after Parliament won the English Civil War and was declared head of England; the name of republican England
Stuart Restoration
reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell's death
Habeas Corpus Act
an act passed by Parliament in 1649 that gave prisoners the right to know why they were in jail, must be present at the trial, had the right to a document ordering a trial, and prisoners could not be held indefinitely without a trial
Glorious Revolution
a bloodless revolution when the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism; led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights
a document drawn up by Parliament in 1689 to make clear the rights of the monarchy after the Glorious Revolution
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities; headed by an emperor elected by the princes; Charlemagne was the first emperor; lasted from 962 to 1806
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia; the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E; capital of Babylonia
Akkad
A city state in northern Mesopotaimia; conquered all the city-states of Mesopotamia and formed the world's first empire
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age; first people to master iron working; fought with Egypt over possession of Syria
Assyrians
the group to take over the fertile crescent after the fall of Sargon; created an empire through violence that stretched from east to north of the Tigris River to central Egypt
Nineveh
the capital city of the Assyrian empire that lies on the Tigris river
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering; invention of the plow took place; also known as the neolithic revolution
pastoral societies
human societies that rather than hunting and gathering herded domesticated animals; societies characterized specifically by the domestication of animals
Persian Empire
a vast empire of southwest Asia founded by Cyrus II after 546 B.C.; brought to the height of its power and glory by Darius I when he unified the empire
Neduchadnezzar
the Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon
Great Royal Road
road built in the Persian empire under Darius I that sped up communication in the empire dramatically
Lydians
a people from Asia minor that were the first people to use coins as money
Phoenicians
inventors of the Greek alphabet; an ethnic group of traders living on the East coast of the Mediterranean
Hebrews
the ethnic group claiming descent from Abraham and Isaac; also know as the Jews; in the Bible were led out of Egypt by Moses
Ancient Egypt
early civilization in North Africa that established hierogyphic writing system; had a basic agricultural system and a polytheistic religion; culture depended on the annual flooding of the Nile as the basis for a sustained economy; builders of the Pyramids
King Menes
united Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 B.C.; made his capital in Memphis
Queen Hatshepsut
the first female ruler in history; built impressive monuments and temples; expanded Egyptian trade south to Punt on the Red Sea and north to Asia Minor and Greece
Indus Valley
A river valley in modern Pakistan that was the sight of the Harappan civilization
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Hindu Caste System
system put into place by the Aryan invaders of India to suppress the native people that became embedded into the Hindu religion justified as a remafication of good or bad karma in a past life
Toltec
a people who invaded central Mexico and were ruled by a military class; had a capital city of Tula; influenced the Maya; introduced the working of gold and silver; spread the worship of their god Quetzalcoatl; destroyed in the 1100s CE
Chichen Itza
Originally a Mayan city in the Yucatan; conquered by Toltecs circa 1000 and ruled by Toltec dynasties
Golden Age of Pericles
the period following the Greek victory in the Persian wars under Pericles of peace and prosperity
Socrates
ancient Greek philosopher from Athens; teacher of Plato; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason which later became Socratic method
Plato
ancient Greek philosopher from Athens; student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle; wrote the Republic about a society in which the people are divided into three categories, workers, protectors and governors
Aristotle
ancient Greek philosopher from Athens; pupil of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great; based philosophies on observation
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey in approximately 850 BC
Macedonians
people of Macedonia who under Philip of Macedon invaded Athens; also ruled by Alexander the Great who created an empire based in Macedonia
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage from 264-146 BC that resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean; also destabilized the Roman Senate which began the shift to an imperial government
Hannibal
Carthaginian military commander in the Second Punic War; successfully invaded Italy but failed to conquer Rome; finally defeated at Battle of Zama
Ceasar
famous Roman leader; to elected consul of Rome in 59 BC; genius with military strategy; governed as an absolute ruler; was assassinated in the senate chamber; son became the first emperor of Rome
First Triumvirate
the political alliance of Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar that in effect controlled the Roman senate after the Punic Wars; ended when civil war sparked Caesar pushing out Crassus and Pompey and declaring himself emperor and he was killed
Second Triumvirate
the political alliance of Octavius, Marc Antony and Lepidus that came to power after the death of Caesar; ended when Octavius declared; himself emperor; marks the end of democracy in Rome
Augustus Caesar
The first empreror of Rome; the adopted son of Julius Caesar; help Rome come into Pax Romana
Edict of Milan
the degree in 313CE by Emperor Constantine that declared Christianity legal and so ended the persecution of Christianity in the Roman Empire
Ren
the term for a sense of human kindness in Confucianism
Li
the term fora sense of courtesy and respect in Confucianism
Xiao
the term for filial piety in Confucianism
Long Parliament
Parliament convened by Charles I in 1640; officially lasted twenty years; was involved in the civil war against Charles I
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia; founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E.; became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the Punic Wars in the third century B.C.E.
Huguenots
French Protestants influenced by John Calvin
Edict of Nantes
edict issued by Henry IV of France in 1598 that ended the persecution of protestants, specifically Huguenots, in France
War of Spanish Succession
war between France and Spain united with the rest of Europe lasting between 1701 and 1714 sparked when one of Louis XIV's grandson's, Philip V, inherited the throne of Spain; other European powers fought to prevent the uniting of Spain and France because it would be a super power
Jean Baptiste Colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient; brought prosperity to France.
Cardinal Richelieu
adviser to Louis XIII and held most of the decision making power in France at the time; strengthened the French throne towards an absolute monarchy; Catholic but not anti-protestant and even aided protestants
Thirty Years' War
series of war beginning in 1618 through 1648 between Protestants and the Catholic Hapsburg ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Peace of Augsburg
agreement signed in 1555 designed to end the conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants specifically in Germany; stated that all the German states had the right to choose their ruler and so also their religion
Peace of Westphalia
an agreement negotiated in 1648; reaffirmed the independence of the German states which further decreased the power of the Holy Roman Empire
Ivan IV
also know as Ivan the terrible; first Russian ruler to take the title of czar; grandson of Ivan III ruled violently but accomplished much including expanding Russian territory and uniting the Russian people
Cossacks
peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south by Ivan the Terrible; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements in Russia
Peter the Great
Russian Czar ruling from 1682-1725 who opened the "Window to the West" through which he brought many Western intellectuals to westernize Russia; founded St. Petersburg and made it the new capital of Russia; modernized the Russian the upper class but left the lower classes even more repressed
Catherine the Great
Russian Czar from 1762-1796; continued the process begun by Peter the Great; encouraged education; expanded Russian territory into Poland and gained a peace of coast on the Black sea which made trading easier
Ottoman Empire
Islamic gunpowder empire founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300; conquered Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul, in 1453 and made it the capital; fell after allying itself with the Central Powers in WWI
Osman Bey
the founder of the Ottoman Empire in in 1289 building it up from Anatolia, his homeland; aimed to unify the region and build power to challenge the neighboring Byzantine Empire
Janissaries
Christian boys taken from families as children who were forced to converted to Islam then rigorously trained to serve the sultan as slave soldiers
Selim I
Ottoman leader that took over in 1512 through questionable means; expanded Ottoman lands into Egypt and Arabia including Mecca and Medina; under his watch the reconstruction of Istanbul began; built Topkapi palace; claimed to be a rightful Caliph
Suleiman I
also known as Suleiman the Magnificent; Ottoman sultan who ruled from 1520 to 1566 built up the Ottoman military; encourage the development of the arts; ruled over the golden age of the Ottoman empire; took over part of Hungary
Babur
founder of the Mughal Empire; led the invasion of Northern India and defeated the Delhi Sultanate; claimed to be descended from Genghis Khan
Mughal Empire
Islamic gunpowder empire founded by Babur that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent beginning in 1526 with the defeat of the Delhi Sultanate; conquered most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries uniting India completely for the first time
Akbar
religiously tolerant leader of the Mughal empire who ruled from 1556 to 1605 and unified India; eliminated the practices of jizya and sati to create society more equal for genders and religions; had a Hindu wife and allowed Hindus into government positions
Shah Jahan
Akbar's grandson and ruler of the Mughal Emire; built the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
monument and tomb built by Shah Jahan, Mughal in 1649 for his favorite wife
Safavid Empire
Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled Persia between 16th and 18th centuries; much less religiously tolerant of non-Muslims than either of the other Islamic gunpowder empires
jizya
the head tax on Hindus in the Mughal Empire
sati
the practice of Hindu women throwing themselves on their husband's funeral pyres
Songhai
West African trading empire that conquered Mali; controlled trade and ruled the area from 1400s to 1591 when it was overthrown by Moroccans
Kongo
centralized kingdom on the West coast of African that traded closely with the Portuguese beginning in the 1480s; strove convert people to Roman Catholicism especially under King Alfonso I
King Alfonso I
famous king of the Kongo who was zealously Christian and strove to convert his people to Christiantiy; attempted to work with King John II of Portugal to decrease the number of his people being taken as slaves but is ignored
Queen Nzinga
warrior queen of Angola who dressed up as a man and fought with her troops in battle; fought the Portuguese slave trade; adopted European military tactics
Zheng He
Chinese navigator who Led 7 voyages between 1405 and 1433 throughout southeast Asia, the Indian Ocean and all the way to Africa; voyages abruptly ended in 1433 marking the internalization of Chinese society
Manchus
a people from Manchuria, North of China, who invaded China and set up the Qing Dynasty
Tokugawa Ieyasu
granted title of shogun in 1603 and founded the Tokugawa Shogunate; unified Japan
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese dynasty founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu that ruled from 1603 until 1868 when it was toppled by the Meiji Restoration; rigid social structure; isolated Japan from the outside world; reigned over a uniquely Japanese cultural golden age of uniquely Japanese art; rights of women almost non-existent; moved the Japanese capital to Edo
Edo period
name gotten from the new Japanese capital of Edo gotten from also known as the Tokugawa period; period marked by the change of Japanese attitudes towards the West that began isolation
National Seclusion Policy
a policy enacted in 1635 that prohibited foreigners, with a few exceptions notably the Chinese, Koreans and Dutch, from entering Japan; also prohibits Japanese from leaving the country and prevents them from reentering the country after a certain date; remained in practice for 200 years, keeping Japan completely secluded
Kabuki
a form of Japanese theater using music, dance and mime developed in the 1600s during the Edo period
Haiku
a form of Japanese poetry with three unrhymed lines and the syllabic scheme of 5, 7, 5 usually focusing on nature developed during the Edo period
Enclosure
the process beginning in England in the 1700s in which the owners of land enclosed it with fences whereas previously it had been easily accessible and often used by peasants to graze animals or grow crops; a cause of urbanization as it forced peasants off the land and into cities
Urbanization
the term for the growth of cities and the migration of people, particularly farming peasants to the cites to work in factories
cottage industry
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment; also know as the domestic system
flying shuttle
an invention by John Kay in 1733 that sped up the process of weaving by enabling the weaver to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand
spinning jenny
an invention by John Hargreaves in 1764 that allowed large amounts of thread to be spun very quickly by allowing the spinning of more than one thread at a time
Eli Whitney
American inventor of the cotton gin in 1793; also worked on the concept of interchangeable parts developed in the same time period
cotton gin
an invention in 1793 by Eli Whitney that cleaned the seeds from cotton which increased the efficiency of the production of cotton; expanded the cotton industry which also increased the used of slavery in the United States
steam engine
new power source invented first by Thomas Newcomer; significant because it could produce enough energy to run factories and transportation
Robert Fulton
built the first steamship in 1807 which allowed goods to be mass transported quickly overseas increasing the efficiency of international trade
steamship
overseas transportation method first invented by Robert Fulton in 1807; allowed efficient transportation of goods at speed
George Stephenson
built the first steam-powered locomotive in the 1820s
steam-powered locomotive
transportation method invented by George Stephenson in the 1820s; impoved the efficiency of land trade; particularly significant in England as there were large amounts of coal to make good use of this invention
telegraph
early form of instant long distance communication; invented by Samuel Morse in 1837
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone in 1876
Thomas Edison
perfected the light bulb for mass use in 1879; also invented the phonograph the microphone and the Kinetoscope, an early motion picture device
Gottlieb Daimler
invented the internal combustion engine in 1885
Internal Combustion Engine
Heat engine that burns fuel inside the engine in chambers or cylinders; first invented by Gottlieb Daimler in 1885 and still used in many car engines today
Marconi Guglielmo
invented the radio in the 1890s
Orville and Wilbur Wright
invented the airplane in 1903
Charles Darwin
English naturalist who traveled to the Galapagos Islands and there made observations that led him to write On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859 on his theories of evolution and natural selection
Factory system
a system of mass production of goods in which production and workers are concentrated in one building making production more efficient and cheaper but also produced a lot of pollution
interchangeable parts
system created by Eli Whitney in which machines were made with mass produced identical parts so that when a part broke it would be easily replaced
assembly line
a system used in factories where each worked adds one specific part to the finished product; increased efficiency in factories
Adam Smith
wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776 which postulated capitalism and laissez-faire economics; suggested that porsperity and fairness is achieved through private ownership in an economy with a free market
free market system
the term for a system of pure capitalism, in which all economic decisions are made without government intervention
capitalism
an economic system first postulated by Adam Smith based on private ownership and private profit; the individual controls all parts of their business;
laissez-faire capitalism
translates as leave "to do" a form of capitalism that is completely free of any and all government regulations
Karl Marx
writer of the Communist Manifesto with Fredrich Engels; German economist and philosopher who developed the ideas known as Marxism about a revolution in which the proletariat rises up against the injustices of capitalism and set up a classless society with a collectivized economy
socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry particularly transportation, education and heath care and other things that are assured to the populace but allows private ownership of some business that are non-essential; a theory part way between capitalism and communism
communism
a political theory favoring collectivism in a classless society in which the government owns and runs all industry and there is no private ownership at all
liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of all citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property whose ideology is derived from the Enlightenment
conservatism
a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to current political authority which tended to be monarchies and organized religion rather than reform
Luddites
originally a group of English workers who would destroy the machines in factories to protest the working conditions and low wages of workers in those factories; also believed that machines would reduce employment and so resented them; has come to mean anyone who hates new technology
Imperialism
the political philosophy of a strong nation taking over smaller weaker nations and controlling them politically, socially and economically often for the mother country's own gain; the policy of empire building
Colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory; the result of imperialism
Paternalism
the attitude of a government that subordinates, particularly colonial nations of often ethnically different people, should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good; motivation for ideas such as "White Man's Burden"
Factory Act of 1883
laws passed by the British Parliament that limited factory hours, required the maintaining of safe working, and restrict children from working in factories in 1883
labor unions
an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer developed in the 1880s
social mobility
the ability of a member of one class to work their way up to other higher social classes
women's suffrage
a movement first beginning in England that fought for women's rights, specifically the right to vote
Social Darwinist
a group of thinkers who saw the human race as driven forward to ever-greater specialization and progress by the unending economic struggle which would determine "the survival of the fittest"
Rudyard Kipling
British writer who wrote of "the White Man's Burden" and justified imperialism
"White Man's Burden"
a poem written by Rudyard Kipling that justified imperialism by stating that the native people of the lands that the White man conquered were in need of their help and it was their duty to civilize them
ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Robert Clive
a British soldier who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Southern India and Bengal; credited with securing India, and the wealth that followed, for the British crown
Sepoy Mutiny
discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858; specifically discontent among sepoys because gun cartridges were covered in both pig and cow fat which offended by the Hindus and Muslims
sepoy
Indian natives who worked for the British while India was under British rule as soldiers
Bahdur Shah II
the last Mughal rulers who was sent into exile in 1877 when Queen Victoria was decalared Empress of India
Indian National Congress
a movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government; its demands were modest until World War I; Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor
Opium Wars
a war fought between Britian and China from 1839-1842 China closing their borders to the opuim trade; ended in China signing the Treaty of Nanjing in 1942
Treaty of Nanjing
an 1842 treaty that ended Opium war; said the Western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china; it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws in 5 treaty ports that were ruled under Western laws
Taiping Rebellion
a rebellion in China from 1854-1868 led the a christian group led by Hong Xiuquan, a Christian convert, that nearly succeeded in bringing down the Qing Dynasty ; demanded equality, no private propery, dividing of harvest
Self-Strengthening movement
a movement in the 1860s during which the Qing dynasty attempted to strengthen itself to challenge the West enacted by Dowgar Empress's program to update China's educational system, diplomatic service and military
Sino-French War
a war fought between China and France in 1883 in which the Chinese lost control of Vietnam to the French where they established Indochina
Sino-Japanese War
Japan's imperialistic war against China from 1894-1895 to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods; ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate
Treaty of Shimonoseki
a treaty between Japan and China in 1895 in which Japan took control of Taiwan from China
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Open Door Policy
American policy towards China proposed in 1899 that pledged its support for Chinese sovereignty and announced that all imperial powers had equal right to trade in China
Boxer Protocol
a protocol that China was forced to sign as a result of the rebellion that shares its name which demanded the China pay the Europeans and Japanese the cost of putting down the rebellion and formally apologize
Commodore Matthew Perry
the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who arrived in Japan in 1853 compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854
Treaty of Kanagawa
An 1854 agreement by Japan with America, that Japan would open two ports to trade with the U.S. and would help shipwrecked U.S. sailors
Meiji Restoration
a movement to change the social structure of Japan through centralization, industrialization, and imperialism in the 1870s that caused the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate
Russo-Japanese War
a war between Russia and Japan in 1904 in which Japan won control of Manchuria from the Russians
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s in which Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa
Berlin Conference
a conference of European nations hosted by Otto Van Bismark in Berlin during which certain guidelines for the division of Africa between the various European nations; no African nations were invited
First Boer War
war fought between the Boers fought England between 1880-1881 in order to regain the independence they had given up to obtain British help against the Zulus; also known as the Ohana War
Boer
also known as Afrikaners; the Dutch people, mostly farmers, the settler in South Africa prior the the British conquest of the area but formed the majority of the population even after the British took over
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923; eventually succeeded in bringing equality
Muhammad Ali
Ottoman viceroy in Egypt who defeated the French and the Ottomans for control of Egypt in 1805; not complete Egyptian independence but great autonomy from Ottoman control
Abbas I
successor to Muhammad Ali as Ottoman viceroy and began the construction of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
a canal completed in 1869 in Egypt that connected the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean which eliminated the need for the Cape of Good Hope in trade between Europe and India
Otto Van Bismark
Conservative prime minister of Prussia who is credited with German unification; architect of German unification under Prussian king William I in 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes; Fought 3 wars in 1864, 1866, and 1870;
Treaty of Portsmouth
a treaty between Japan and China that ended the Sino-Japanese War in which Japan was granted Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate
Boxer Rebellion
rebellion against the Qing, the Europeans and the Christians in China in 1900; led by the group that shares its name; ended by British troops leading to the protocol that also shares the name of the rebellion
Boxers
also known as the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists; an anti-Qing, anti-European, anti-Christian group in China that was organized in response to China's defeat by the Western powers and Japan whose goal it was to drive the Europeans and Japanese out of China; adopted guerilla warfare tactics to slaughter Christian missionaries and take control of foreign embassies
Empress Cixi
Empress of China who supported anti-foreign movements including the Boxer Rebellion, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces
Maxim Machine Gun
the first automatic machine gun; invention that allowed conquest of the interior of Africa
Quinine
from the bark of the cinchona tree, is used to treat fever and relieves muscle spasm, also prevents malaria
Muslim League
an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims against the British, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers that opened in 1915 which greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America
Young Turks Party
A Turkish revolutionary nationalist reform party, officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), whose leaders led a rebellion against the Ottoman sultan and effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1908 until shortly before World War I
Mahmud II
Ottoman sultan who ruled from 1808 to 1839; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents
Diet of Japan
Japan's bicameral legislature that is composed of a lower house, called the House of Representatives, and an upper house called, the House of Councillors; both houses are elected under a parallel voting system. In addition to passing laws, this is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister.
The Raj
A term used to describe the area of direct British control in India from 1757 to 1947; first created in order to trade but slowly began to take governmental control until it completely took over
Cecil Rhodes
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe; believed in expansion; founded the De Beers Mining Company
Witte Industrialization Program
a program begun by Count Sergei Lul'evich Witte starting in 1892; attempting to modernize and industrialize Russia to make the country more competitive with other nations
The Jewel in the Crown
the phrase used by the British to describe India compared to all its other conquests
Intolerable acts
a series of four acts passed by parliament in 1774 in response to Boston Tea Party which closed the Port of Boston, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Yamagata Aritomo
Leader of the Meiji Restoration; twice the prime minister of Japan and a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army; one of the architects of the foundations of early modern Japan; father of Japanese Militarism
Second Boer War
a war fought between the Boers and the British between 1899-1902 when the Orange Free State and Transvaal declared war on Britain after diamonds were discovered in Boer territory and the British began to immigrate; resulted in the creation of the Union of South Africa which was a British Colony
Ethiopia and Liberia
the only two African nations that were not taken over by the Europeans during the Scramble for Africa
American Revolution
a political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy
Declaration of Independence
the document authored mostly by Thomas Jefferson recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress which was on 4 July 1776 asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
French and Indian War
also known as the Seven Years' War; a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley; English defeated French in1763; established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse
George Grenville
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury to end smuggling
Charles Townsend
English ambassador to the dutch that brought to England the advancements of the dutch, such as drainage and crop rotation.
Revenue Act
also known as the Sugar Act; an act passed by Parliament in 1764 that placed a tax on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses; colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors
Stamp Act
an act passed by Parliament in 1756 that tax placed a tax all on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies by mandating a stamp to be put on it
Tea Act
a 1773 act passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies and establishing a high tax on tea; led to the Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party
a 1773 event during which colonists in Boston threw millions of dollars of tea off of British ships in protest of their Tea Tax and Boston Massacre
The Battle of Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the American Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts
"No Taxation Without Representation"
the slogan behind which the American revolutionaries banded against the British protesting the taxing of the American people without having a say in the British government that imposed the laws
Thomas Paine
English author of Common Sense, a pamphlet urging the American colonists to rebel against British rule; also was first to publish the Rights of Man in England
Estates General
a "governing body" in pre-revolutionary France that was made up of representatives of all three estates; last called in 1789 and at that time sparked the French Revolution
First Estate
the estate in pre-revolutionary France that was made up of clergy and had the most power
Second Estate
the estate in pre-revolutionary France that was made up of the nobility and had the second most power
Third Estate
the estate in pre-revolutionary France that was made up of the majority of the population including the peasants and the bourgeoisie but has the least power
bourgeoisie
the French term for the middle class
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly primarily those of the Third Estate in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
National Assembly
the revolutionary French assembly made up at first of the Third Estate to protest their lack of control in the government; first called in 1789; wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man also in 1789
The Storming of the Bastille
The first violent act of the French revolution on July 14, 1789 when French peasants stormed the prison, the Bastille, in an attempt to free prisoners who they believed had been wrongly accused
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights of the people as believed by Enlightenment thinker adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution; similar to The Declaration of Independence in the American Revolution
constitutional monarchy
a system of government in which the ruler is still the head of state but power is limited by law as laid out in a constitution
The Convention
the governing body by the French Republic from 1792-95; members were elected through universal male suffrage and became divided along political lines; Declared the end of the monarchy; brought Louis XVI to trial and executed him and his wife
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution that were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794
Committee of Public Safety
the leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795; also fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses; Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort; Instigated the Reign of Terror
Maximilien Robespierre
Jacobin leader of Convention during the Reign of Terror; had been representative of the Third Estate during the Constituent Assembly; had argued for universal suffrage and against capital punishment; Pro democracy and against the war
The Directory
a Five man group that was in power from 1785-1799; Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative; Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength; By 1797 it was a dictatorship
Napoleon Bonaparte
the military dictator who overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804; Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814; Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile; established the Napoleonic Code; dissolved the Holy Roman Empire
Napoleonic Code
a civil code established by Napoleon in 1804 that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property which was secured by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy; gave women and children very few rights and were severely limited under the law
Prince von Metternich
conservative Austrian statesman and diplomat; believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy); Leader of the Congress of Vienna and the Austrian representative at that congress
Alexander I
the czar of Russia from 1777-1825 whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon; the Russian representative at the Congress of Vienna
Duke of Wellington
British soldier and statesman; he led the British troops against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat; Prussian and British forces under Blucher and the Duke of Wellington routed the French forces under Napoleon
Congress of Vienna
conservative reactionary meeting of the Quadruple Alliance led by Prince Metternich to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
Pierre Toussaint L'Ouverture
leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti; led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797 and named himself a dictator.
Jacques Dessalines
Was the successor to Toussaint L'Overture and his lieutenant during the Haitian Revolution; formally declared the former colony of St. Dominique to be the new independent state of Haiti.
Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan statesman and South American revolutionary leader who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule in 1819 founded Bolivia in 1825; president of Greater Colombia (now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador)
Jose de San Martin
Great liberator Creole from Argentina; led an army across Andes to Chile in 1817 and was joined by Bernardo O'Higgins; freed Chile; left his forces to Bolivar to command after reaching Lima, Peru, thus uniting revolutionary forces.
John VI
Portuguese king who fled to Rio de Janeiro after Napoleon's invasion of Portugal but would later be restored by Congress of Vienna as a constitutional monarch; was religiously tolerant and respected civil rights and the sanctity of property
Pedro
son of John VI who declared Brazil independent after his father was reinstated as king of Portugal; led bloodless revolution to make Brazil a free country
Pedro II
son of Pedro who became ruler of Brazil in 1831 when his father abdicated the throne to him; reformed Brazilian economy into a major exporter of coffee; abolished slavery in 1888; last monarch of Brazil as the land owners were enraged by the abolition of slavery and revolted in 1889 making Brazil into a republic
Miguel Hidalgo
Creole priest in Mexico who sympathized with the lower classes as they were abused under Spanish Colonialism which led him to lead a revolt against Spanish rule in 1810; executed by Spanish forces at Calderon Bridge after his rebellion was quashed
Jose Morelos
Mexican revolutionary leader who continued the revolution started by Miguel Hidalgo and got closer to succeeding but was executed in 1815 by the upper class because of his plans to redistribute land to the poor
Treaty of Cordoba
a treaty signed in 1821 by Agustín de Iturbide, the man who had defeated Jose Maria Morelos but then joined the Mexican rebels, in which Mexico was granted independence from Spain
Reign of Terror
the period, from 1793 to 1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia, Piedmont and Savory until 1861 when he was crowned the first king of a united Italy
Count Camillo Cavour
Prime minister of Sardinia (northern Italy) who vowed to drive out the Austrians and worked towards a united Italy; fought several wars to remove Austrians from Italy and succeeded in removing them from all but Venetia by 1859
Giuseppe Garibaldi
An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics; planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily
William I
Kaiser of Prussia; made Otto von Bismarck a chancellor; Hired Bismarck and becomes king of all of Germany
Franco-Prussian War
war from 1870-71 between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor
William II
German emperor who succeeded William I; opposed Bismarck and fired him
Alexander II
Czar of Russia who issued the Emancipation Edict and split land up between the peasants; assassinated the The People's Will in 1881
Emancipation Edict
the edict edict issued by Alexander II in 1861 that freed the serfs but eventually had negative effects
The People's Will
a Russian terrorist organization, best known for the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1881; created a centralized, well disguised, and most significant organization in a time of diverse liberation movements in Russia
Nicholas II
the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution; executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918
Bloody Sunday
a peaceful march in 1905 to encourage the Czar to enact reforms of the kind advocated by the European Enlightenment that turned violent when the Czar felt threatened and ordered his guards to fire on the protesters; hundreds dead
Peter Stolypin
Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants.
The Duma
a body set up by Czar Nicholas to represent the Russian people that was then quickly disbanded when it criticized him
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries, particularly in the form of colonialism, in the Western Hemisphere and if any power did so the US would take that as an act of aggression and act accordingly
Roosevelt Corollary
a 1904 statement of foreign policy that was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Spanish-American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines in 1898 that lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
Nationalism
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
isolationism
a policy of non-participation in international economic and political relations
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; assasinated in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip
assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, one of six assassins attempting to do so; a member of the Black Hand
Allies
the alliance that evolved out of the Triple Entente that consisted of Britian, Russia and France, Romania, Greece, the United States and other
Triple Entente
the alliance of Britian, Russia and France created in response to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
Zimmerman telegraph
a telegraph sent by Germany to Mexico that encouraged Mexico to help Germany fight against the US if they entered war and in return Germany would help Mexico get their land back from the US; intercepted by Britain and given to the United States and became a factor in inciting the United States involvement in WWI
Triple Alliance
an alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; signed in 1882
Central Powers
the alliance created after the Triple Alliance disbanded with the withdrawal of Italy; consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungry, Turkey, Bulgaria and others
The Lusitania
British ship that was torpedoed by German submarines enacting their threat of sinking any ships sailing to Britian; 128 Americans on board also killed
Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms, a league of nations and no reparations on Germany; inspired a German surrender
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty written and signed by the leaders victorious allies Nations, France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany, to end WWI; stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air force, Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion) or pay preparation, Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI, Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
League of Nations
precursor to the United Nations created after WWI formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; suggested by Woodrow Wilson but the United States never joined and it remained powerless
Russian Revolution
the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
Alexander Kerensky
an agrarian socialist who became prime minister of the provisional government established in 1917; refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important and so was quickly deposed
soviets
a Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers
Bolsheviks
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903; seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
Vladimir Lenin
Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party; lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed; first leader of the Soveit Union
April Theses
Radical document written by Vladimir Lenin that calls for Russia to withdraw from the war, for the soviets to seize power on behalf of workers and poor peasants, and for all private land to be nationalized
Black Hand
a Serbian militant group
Battle of Verdun
Germans attached a key French fortress to force the Allies into a peace settlement in February 1916; huge numbers of casualties due to superior defense over offense
Battle of Somme
British counter attach to the Battle of Verdun into German territory, Somme, also in 1916; huge numbers of casualties due to superior defense over offense
Treaty of London
treaty between the Allies and Italy in which Italy agreed to fight for the Allies
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A signed agreement between Russia and the Central Powers when Russia withdrew from the War in which Russia surrendered Poland, the Ukraine and other territory
Soviet Union
a communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia an others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991
Leon Trotsky
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; ousted from the Communist Party by Stalin and eventually assassinated in Mexico
Ataturk
also known as Mustafa Kemal; "Father of the Turks" who helped to create Republic of Turkey and wanted to modernize (westernize) Turkey as well as separate religion and government
New Economic Plan
A plan instituted by Lenin in the early 1920s which allowed rural peasants and small business operators to manage their own land and businesses and to sell their products; a temporary compromise with capitalism that worked well enough to get the Russian economy functioning again
Joseph Stalin
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953 who succeeded Lenin; created a purely communist totalitarian state; industrialized Russia very quickly through a series of Five Year Plans
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928; set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state; succeeded in swift industrialization but at a high cost in human lives and freedoms
collectivization
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it and all produce went to the government to be redistributed throughout the nation; system of agriculture used in the Soviet Union under Stalin
Great Depression
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s ending around the beginning of WWII
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the US that was elected by an overwhelming majority in 1932, introduced the New Deal, and led the US through most of WWII
fascism
a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government
Benito Mussolini
the Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943; led Italy to conquer Ethiopia in 1935; joined Germany in the Axis pact in 1936; and allied Italy with Germany in World War II; overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy
National Socialist Party (Nazis)
the German political party led by Adolf Hitler that became powerful in Germany before and during WWII; the only political party allowed in Germany under Hitler
Reichstag
the parliament of Germany before 1945; Ppreviously the general assembly of the Holy Roman Empire, and later the North German Confederation; replaced with the current German parliament, the Bundestag in 1949
Adolf Hitler
German dictator who was born in Austria; became a radical German nationalist during World War I; led the National Socialist German Workers' Party or the Nazi Party in the 1920s and became dictator of Germany in 1933; led Germany into World War II
Third Reich
the name of the Nazi dictatorship under Hitler that lasted from 1933-1945
Fransisco Franco
Fascist general whose rebel forces defeated the Republicans in 1939 in the Spanish Civil War; ruled as dictator of Spain until his death in 1975
Rhineland
Region between Germany and France demilitarized by Treaty of Versailles; Hitler occupied and fortified the region
Munich Conference of 1938
a meeting between representatives of Britain and France and Germany in 1938 in Munich in which France and Britain agreed to allow Germany to take over Czechoslovakia as long it was agreed Germany would not expand further; seen as an assurance of peace.
Neville Chamberlain
British prime minister during the rise of Hitler who pursued appeasement towards the Axis powers; attended the Munich Conference where he continued appeasing Hitler in Germany
appeasement
the practice of satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability
Nazi-Soviet Pact
a non-agression pact signed by Germany under Hitler and the Soviet Union under Stalin in 1939; also agreed to divide Poland between them; pact broken first by Germany when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union
Manchukuo
the puppet state set up by Japan in Manchuria after its conquest of that area; condemned by the League of Nations though they did not act on the distaste
Anti-Comintern Pact
a pact signed by Japan and Germany and ratified by Italy in 1936 which was in opposition to Communism but proved to be the foundation for diplomatic alliance between these three powers
Rape of Nanjing
a six-week period following the Japanese capture of the Chinese city of Nanjing during which hundreds of thousands of civilians were murdered and 20,000-80,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army
blitzkrieg
"lightening war"; War of three waves starting with bombing to take out communications then tanks to break through lines
Winston Churchill
Britain's prime minister during WWII; refused to surrender to Germany
Battle of Britain
Air battle between the British Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe; German forces were larger but British forces were more advanced and had the use of radar. Won by Britain.
Tripartite Pact
a pact between Japan, Germany, and Italy signed in September 1940, by which each pledged to declare war on any nation that attacked any of them
Pearl Harbor
United States military base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japan on December 7, 1941, bringing the United States into World War II
Manhattan Project
the code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
D-Day
the battle on June 6, 1944 led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France; the turning point of World War II.
Hiroshima
the first site where the US dropped an atomic bomb in Japan on August 6, 1945
Nagasaki
the second site where the US dropped an atomic bomb in Japan on August 9, 1945 three days after the first bomb was dropped in Hiroshima
Marshall Plan
a United States plan to revive war-torn economies of Europe; offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe rebuild
United Nations
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation that replaced the League of Nations
Axis Powers
the alliance formed in 1936 that fought in World War II consisting of the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan
Weimar Republic
the German republic in power from 1919 to 1933; toppled and replaced by the Third Reich
Cold War
a period of time following World War II during which the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years
Yalta
the sight of a meeting between FDR, Churchill, and Stalin where they agreed to wage war on Japan, to divide Germany into 4 equal parts, on the big 5's veto, and to hold free elections for the liberated countries
Potsdam
the place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Atlee, met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding their immediate surrender
Berlin Blockade
a blockade set up on April 1, 1948 by the Soviets around Berlin in an attempt to to starve out Britain, France and the US who occupied 3/4 of Berlin so the Soviets could have the entire city
Berlin Airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Soviet bloc
the region in Eastern Europe under Soviet control, Stalin used it as a buffer against capitalist invasion
Western bloc
the term that refers to the area occupied by the powers allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War
Truman Doctrine
a US foreign policy doctrine of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology as part of the policy of containment of communism
containment
the policy mostly American but also Western European designed to keep the Soviet Union and communist ideology from expanding its power
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European countries, the US and Canada with the US at its head created to counteract the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
a pact signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain including the USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Iron Curtain
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII from the West, restricting their ability to communicate and travel outside the region
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
A treaty signed in 1968 that stated who could possess nuclear arms, specifically naming China, Russia, the USA, Great Britain and France, and to limit the amount and possession of them
International Atomic Energy Agency
the United Nations agency set up in 1957 concerned with the control of atomic energy
Sun Yat-sen
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death; attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders; advocated the Three Principles of the People
Chinese Revolution of 1911
the revolution in China that began with the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 and ended with the abdication of Emperor Puyi on February 12, 1912
Three Principles of the People
the three liberal principles of nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people that were supported by Sun Yat-sen that were very democratic and western in heritage
Kuomintang
The Chinese Nationalist political party, formed after the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912 by Sun Yat-sen and that governed China under Chiang Kai-sek from 1928-1949 when the Communists took over; retained power in Taiwan
Chiang Kai-shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925 who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang; became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party from 1927-1976; led the Communists on the Long March; rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China; initiated the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution
People's Republic of China
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of Mao Zedong; aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialist society; the plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
Cultural Revolution
A 1966-1976 uprising in China instigated by Mao Zedong led by the Red Guards with the goal of establishing a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal
Deng Xiaoping
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong
Tienanmen Square Massacre
a massacre in China on May of 1989 of students who were demanding greater political freedom and more economic reform and protested in Tienanmen square for those causes when they refused to disperse the army became involved; many protesters were arrested, put to death, tortured.
General MacArthur
commander of the US forces in the Philippine Islands who directed the Allied occupation of Japan and of the UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War; removed from Korean War command by President Truman after he expressed a desire to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria
Korean War
Conflict that began with North Korea's crossing of the 38th parrelle and invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea The conflict that followed the crossing of the 38th parrelle by the North Korean Forces
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam; founded Viet Minh/Viet Cong and with them fought French and American forces to a standstill in Vietnam from 1946-1973
Ngo Dihn Diem
Corrupt leader of South Vietnam, supported by US until his unpopularity led us to approve a coup by the military
Platt Amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble stating that Cuba makes no treaty with others if in endangers independence, can't borrow money if they can't pay back, US can get involved with Cuba affairs and US has navy there in the form of the Guantanamo Bay naval base
Batista Dictatorship
a dictatorship in power in Cuba from 1939 until 1959 supported by the US because it continued the policies of the Platt amendment
Fidel Castro
Cuban socialist leader of the Cuban revolution who overthrew the Batista Dictatorship in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state that was allied with the Soveit Union
Cuban Revolution
A political revolution in 1958 led by Fidel Castro that removed the United States supported Fugencio Batista from power; ended in Castro becoming the new dictator in charge of Cuba
Bay of Pigs Invasion
failed invasion of Cuba on April 17, 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs; heightened tensions between the US and the Soviet Union leading eventually to the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation between US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba; JFK demanded the missiles be removed and blockaded Cuba until Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations with Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region though the policy states that US will not intervene in the internal workings of Latin America at all; reversed by Teddy Kennedy's Big Stick Policy
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to stop the flow of citizens escaping to the West from the the Soviet zone of Germany; symbol of the Iron curtain; torn down in 1989
Vietnam War
a war from 1954-1975 between the communist armies of North Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States starting in 1961; ending in April 1975 when North Vietnam captured Saigon and North and South Vietnam were reunified
Sandinista
Rebel forces in Nicaragua fought the Contra established in the 1960s that was sponsored by the Cuban government under Castro
Hugo Chavez
current president of Venezuela who is now in his third term of office (which required changing the constitution) and favors socialist policies
Lech Walesa
founder of Solidarity and polish politician; won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995 in the first free elections in 50 years
Solidarity
Polish trade union, the first in the Soviet Bloc, created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression; began the Polish nationalist opposition to communist rule that partly led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. attempted to improve relations with the West; lost power after his reforms; led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe
glasnost
a Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues and freer dissemination of news and information initiated by Gorbachev in 1985
perestroika
a policy of economic reform initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society to remedy the desperate economic situation and social unrest in the nation of the time
Chechnya
an autonomous republic in southwestern Russia bordering on Georgia with a Muslim majority that declared independence from the USSR in 1991 but Russian troops invaded and continue to prosecute a relentless military campaign in the largely Muslim area
Boris Yeltsin
president of Russia when Russia was given autonomy under Gorbachev and remained in power after the fall of communism; restructured the economy with "shock therapy" which led to a major economic collapse and the rise of oligarchs and the Russian Mafia
Vladimir Putin
second president of the Russian Federation; strong traditional Russian leader; revived economy with Russia's natural resources cracked down on Chechnya
Amritsar Massacre
a massacre of protesters against the Rowlatt Act in Amritsar by British troops who fired on the crowd killing several hundred
Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance; educated as a lawyer in England but returned to India and became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920; fought against racial prejudice against Indians, advocated civil disobedience, equal rights, no caste system; led the salt march and other protests; assassinated by a Hindu extremist
passive resistance
nonviolent action or opposition to authority, often in accord with religious or moral beliefs often taking the form of fasting or other forms of noncompliance
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muslim Indian statesman who was the founder of Pakistan as a Muslim state
Kashmir
A state which is between Pakistan and India, and half belongs to each side; major conflict over the area
Gamal Nasser
Arab leader who set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination; nationalized the Suez canal; led two wars against the Zionist state of Israel
African Union
first known as the Organization of African Unity when it was founded in 1963; the organization now of 53 African nations founded in 1963 which grew to include all the states of the continent except South Africa until 1994; a political body that has tried to resolve regional conflicts such as the Conlfict in the Sudan
Rwandan Genocide
The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda in 1994 escalation of conflict between the dominant Tutsis and the majority Hutus had gone on for centuries, but the suddenness and savagery of the massacres caught the United Nations off-guard. U.N. peacekeepers did not enter the country until late in the conflict
Hutu
The majority ethnic tribe in Rwanda and Burundi who were responsible for the 1994 genocide; previously repressed politically despite being the ethnic majority
Juvenal Habyarimana
Hutu president of Rwanda whose plane was shot done and caused the wave of violence in the next three months that took to form of genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda
Union of South Africa
the name of the region united by the British consisting of the cape Colony, Orange Free state and Transvaal
apartheid
A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites, limiting where black could live and forcing blacks to carry pass books stating that they were permitted to be in any area that was not their home
Nelson Mandela
leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid in South Africa; later elected president in 1994 in the first free election; the first black president of South Africa instrumental in a new democratic constitution being written in 1996
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa; Founded in 1912; led by Nelson Mandela
Sharpeville massacre
a massacre in 1960 in south Africa when police shot at non-violent protestors (protesting against pass laws) in the Sharpeville township
Zionists
a Jewish nationalist group started in 1897 based in Britain who wanted to establish a Jewish state in Palestine
Balfour Declaration
British statement issued in 1917 that stated the the Jewish people had the right to a national homeland though it was never specified where that homeland would be which has since been interpreted as stating support for Israel
1948 Israeli War
a war in 1948 in which Arab nations attacked Israel in response to the partition plan of Palestine; Israel won the battle and expanded
Six Days' War
a war between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria in which the Arab states of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria also contributed troops and arms that ended in Israel had gaining control of the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights
Gaza Strip
a territory along the Mediterranean Sea just northeast of the Sinai Peninsula; part of the land set aside for Palestinians, which was occupied by Israel in 1967 during the Six Days' War
West Bank
a strip of land on the west side of the Jordan River, originally controlled by Jordan, which is part of the land set aside for Arab Palestinians
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
an organization dedicated to the establishment of an independent state for Palestinians in the Middle East but tolerant of Jews and for that reason opposed by Hamas
Hamas
a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon; seeks to create an Islamic state in place of Israel; opposed to the PLO; the leading perpetrator of terrorist activity in Israel
Ayatollah Khomeini
leader of the Iranian revolution and religious leader of the Shiites who when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers
Iranian Revolution
a revolution from 1978-1979 against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader
Saddam Hussein
Dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources; refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction
Persian Gulf War
a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders in 1990 and 1991
Taliban
a fundamentalist Islamic militia noun Ex. in 1995 the Taliban militia took over Afghanistan and in 1996 took Kabul and set up an Islamic government that enforced "Islamic behavior"
Al Qaeda
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
Osama Bin Laden
Founder of al Qaeda, the terrorist network responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and other attacks.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement signed by the United States, Canada, and Mexico in 1992 to form the largest free trade zone in the world
European Union (EU)
an organization of European nations whose members cooperate on economic, social, and political issues
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
Socialist Market Economy
market economy that combines substantial state ownership of large industries with private enterprise, where both forms of ownership operate in a free-pricing market environment; created by Deng Xiaoping in China after the death of Mao
Hundred Flowers Campaign
a period in China from 1956 to 1957 begun by a speech given by Mao that referenced "a schools of thought" being allowed to bloom in which Mao encouraged intellectuals to offer criticism of National Policy, followed by crackdown on critics
One Child Policy
Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside created in 1980 by Deng Xiaoping to control China's quickly growing population
Rowlatt Act
an act passed in 1919 that allowed the British ruling government to jail any protester without trial for a maximum of two years; sparked the Amritsar Massacre
Pol Pot
Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970's; wanted to establish an agrarian paradise in Cambodia and toward this goal he massacred a huge percentage of the population including those foreign educated, all non-Cambodian and many other minorities
Ukrainian Famine
The forced famine of Ukraine by Stalin over not producing enough grain and to quash Ukrainian nationalism in 1932 and 1933
Tutsi
The minority ethnic tribe in Rwanda and Burundi who were victims of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda; previously had held that majority of political power despite minority status
Emancipation Proclamation
a proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states to be free