31 terms

Ch. 4

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medical exam
a person who has ill health or is over 30 should have a medical exam before exercising
fitness evaluation
this will allow you to set realistic goals and determine your progress over time
goal setting
your goals should include long and short term; be realistic and serve as motivation
shoes
proper footwear is major requirement for effective care and protection of your feet
socks
there are many choices for socks accordingly to activity; socks can change the comfort and fit of the shoe; socks will help prevent blisters; socks should be clean and fit properly so there are no wrinkles when the shoe is worn
shirts
a regular cotton shirt is appropriate for most activities;
exercising in hot weather
blood flows directly to working muscles- creates a heat buildup; you rely on air absorption to cool the body and get rid of heat from the surface of your skin; A warm environment makes it difficult for your body to get rid off heat because the air is full of moisture and there is no place for the liquid sweat to go; If body can't get rid of heat, it may cause your body temp to rise thus causing a fluid loss.
hyperthermia
reduction of body fluids / rise in temp
heat related body conditions
heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat stroke
head cramps
least serious, occurs in muscle groups-most often calf/hamstring; treatment: stop activity, drink fluids, apply pressure/ice
heat exhausten
profuse sweating, dizziness, extreme weakness; treatment: stop activity, cool body, take in fluids, move to a shaded area
heat stroke
most serious and is a medical emergency; conditions are hot, dry skin, increased body temp, unconsciousness; treatment: seek medical help immediately, try to cool body with ice
hypothermia
a decline in body temp
cold weather
exposure to weather can also lead to frostbite, or freezing of limbs
cold weather precautions
1. use thermal layers 2. wear gloves, hat, and cover your face 3. dress in layers 4. do not overdress 5. wear waterproof outer layers when snowing or raining
prevention measures for hot/humid conditions
1. wear light colored loose fitting clothing 2. drink fluids before, during and after exercise 3. do not wear rubber suits or take salt tablets 4. on hot days exercise early in the day or in the evening
additional safety precautions
if you are ill stop exercising until you feel better. A person should start a lower level than which you were at before your illness; a leisurely walk after eating a big meal will not interfere with digestion; if possible exercise with another person. females need to be alert to dangerous situations
warm up
a warm up should be performed for 10-15 minutes; stretching alone is not a warm up
why we warm up
makes you feel like moving; increases heart rate and blood supply to working muscles; generates heart in the muscle and joint tissue
how to warm up
including large muscle activity-jogging or jump rope for 10-15 minutes; static or dynamic stretching can be performed after first stage of the warm up
cool down
the cool down is 10-15 minutes of mild activity that allows the body to return to resting state
why we cool down
a sudden stop after hard exercise may cause blood to pull in lower body parts thus you may feel light headed
how to cool down
slow walking for 10-15 minutes will help lower your heart rate an return your pulse to pre-exercise levels
common injuries
muscle soreness, blisters, skin splints, stitch in the side, sprained ankle
muscle soreness
the discomfort is thought to be microscopic tears in muscle fiber + chemical changes in the muscle; muscle soreness can be reduced by starting your exercise program in a gradual manner
blisters
a blister is the result of friction. the bubble that is created is the body's defense of trying to prevent additional damage the bubble is a natural band aid; a bubble should not be broken on purpose; if the bubble breaks the skin can be removed and covered
skin splints
skin splints are a overuse injury are usually are caused from over exercising, hard surfaces, poor conditioning, improper shoes, or running on the balls of your feet; treatment: can consist of ice, taping and rest
stitching in the side
a sharp pain just under the rib cage (cause is unknown) if a stitch in the side occurs, place pressure on area and stretch to the opposite side
sprained ankle
an injury to ligaments surrounding a joint or the capsule that surrounds the joint; upon spraining your ankle you should use ice (15-20 min) elevate the injury and stop the activity
what is the purpose of cooling down after exercising?
the purpose of cooling down after exercising is so you don't cause blood to pull in lower body parts thus you may feel lightheaded, and to return the body to its natural resting state
why do so many people complain about muscle soreness the day after a vigorous physical workout?
so many people complain about muscle soreness the day after a vigorous physical workout because they may have microscopic tears in muscle fiber and chemical changes in the muscle. people get these tears by jumping into a huge exercise instead of starting gradually