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Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

Mastering Biology Online
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O2
If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 synthesized with heavy oxygen (18O), later analysis will show that all but one of the following compounds produced by the algae contain the 18O label. That one is
ATP and NADPH
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
stroma of the chloroplast
Where does the Calvin cycle take place
splitting the water molecules
When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of which of the follow
Bacteria congregated in these areas because these areas had the most oxygen being released.
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.
What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and blue
the relationship between wavelengths of light and the oxygen released during photosynthesis.
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.
An outcome of this experiment was to help determine
this pigment is best at absorbing light with a wavelength of 700 nm.
The reaction-center chlorophyll of photosystem I is known as P700 because
The electron vacancies in P680 are filled by electrons derived from water.
Which statement describes the functioning of photosystem II?
receiving electrons from plastocyanin
Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I?
ATP and NADPH
What are the products of linear photophosphorylation?
cyclic electron flow
As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find 30,000 molecules of ATP consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH. Where did the extra ATP molecules come from?
the synthesis of ATP
Assume a thylakoid is somehow punctured so that the interior of the thylakoid is no longer separated from the stroma. This damage will have the most direct effect on which of the following processes?
establishment of a proton gradient
What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve?
The isolated chloroplasts will make ATP.
Suppose the interior of the thylakoids of isolated chloroplasts were made acidic and then transferred in the dark to a pH-8 solution. What would be likely to happen?
thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?
the stroma to the thylakoid space.
In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from
thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?
both photosynthesis and respiration.
Synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic mechanism occurs during
respiration.
Reduction of oxygen which forms water occurs during
photosynthesis
Reduction of NADP+ occurs during
both photosynthesis and respiration.
Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during
They dissipate excessive light energy.
Carotenoids are often found in foods that are considered to have antioxidant properties in human nutrition. What related function do they have in plants?
light reactions alone
Compare the light reactions with the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis in plants.

Produces molecular oxygen (O2)
light reactions alone
Compare the light reactions with the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis in plants.

Produces NADPH
The light reactions provide ATP and NADPH to the Calvin cycle, and the cycle returns ADP, Pi, and NADP+ to the light reactions.
Which of the following statements best represents the relationships between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle?
stroma of the chloroplast
Where do the enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place?
synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide
What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?
the Calvin cycle alone
Compare the light reactions with the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis in plants.

Requires ATP
the Calvin cycle alone
Compare the light reactions with the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis in plants.

Produces three-carbon sugars
the Calvin cycle alone
Compare the light reactions with the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis in plants.

Requires CO2
regeneration of the five-carbon-containing molecule
In the carbon fixation phase of the Calvin cycle, Rubisco attaches a molecule of carbon dioxide to a molecule containing five carbons. The resulting six-carbon compound is then split into two three-carbon molecules. After the reduction phase (including the exit of a single glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecule), what needs to happen next to complete a turn of the Calvin cycle?
The pH within the thylakoid is less than that of the stroma.
The pH of the inner thylakoid space has been measured, as have the pH of the stroma and of the cytosol of a particular plant cell. Which, if any, relationship would you expect to find?
fix CO2 into organic acids during the night.
CAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they
ATP and NADPH.
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with
H2O --> NADPH --> Calvin cycle
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?
oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration.
In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to
removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?
Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.
Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
release of oxygen
Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
water ... NADPH
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
Photophosphorylation
Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?
False
True or false? The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the synthesis of ATP generates a proton gradient that leads to electron flow through an electron transport chain.
Proton gradient
According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?
Protons
Which of the following particles can pass through the ATP synthase channel?
False
True or false? The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate spans the chloroplast membrane.
ATP will not be produced because there is no ADP and inorganic phosphate in the solution.
Chloroplast membrane vesicles are equilibrated in a simple solution of pH 5. The solution is then adjusted to pH 8. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these experimental conditions?
Photosynthesis
Which process produces oxygen?
The light-dependent reactions
Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?
The light-independent reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars.
What is the importance of the light-independent reactions in terms of carbon flow in the biosphere?
True
True or false? The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis use water and produce oxygen.
NADPH
Which of the following molecules is the primary product of photosystem I?
They convert carbon dioxide to sugar.
What is the biological significance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-independent reactions.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
Regneration of RuBP
Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?