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nations stronger than other powerful nations

anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs)

missiles that could shoot down other missiles from hostile countries

Ronald Reagan

U.S. President, launched a program to build "Star Wars" missile defense against nuclear attack


relaxation of tensions

Fidel Castro

organized an armed rebellion against the corrupt dictator of Cuba

John F. Kennedy

U.S. President, supported an invasion attempt by U.S. trained Cuban exiles


value of system and beliefs

Nikita Khrushchev

new Soviet leader after the death of Stalin

Leonid Brezhnev

ruled the Soviet Union after Khrushchev


containing communism


periods where the economy shrinks


movement to communities outside an urban core


forced separation


unequal treatment or barriers

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

leader of the civil rights movement

Konrad Adenauer

West Germany's prime minister

welfare state

country with a market economy but with increased government responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people

European Community

organization dedicated to establishing free trade among member nations for all products

gross domestic product (GDP)

total value of all goods and services produced in a nation within a particular year


forced pooling of peasant land and labor

Great Leap Forward

Mao's program, urged people to increase farm and industrial output

Cultural Revolution

launched by Mao, goal was to purge China of "bourgeois" tendencies

38th Parallel

line Korea was temporarily divided along after being conquered by Japan

Kim II Sung

ruler of North Korea

Syngman Rhee

ruler of South Korea

Pusan Perimeter

a line where North Korean troops were forced by the United Nation forces to stop

demilitarized zone

area with no military forces


small groups of loosely organized soldiers making surprise raids

Ho Chi Minh

nationalist and communist who led guerrila forces


bloody battle fought in 1954, convinced French to leave Vietnam

domino theory

view that communist governments would cause non-communist governments to fall to communism

Viet Cong

National Liberation Front, communist rebels trying to overthrow South Vietnam's government

Tet Offensive

U.S. troops attack Vietnamese troops on the Vietnamese New Year

Khmer Rouge

force of Cambodian communist guerrillas

Pol Pot

brutal dictator, led the Khmer Rouge


Muslim religious warriors

Mikhail Gorbachev

came to power in the Soviet Union





Lech Walesa

led strikes by shipyard workers because of economic hardships


independent labor union

Vaclav Havel

dissident writer and human rights activist, elected president of Czechoslovakia

Nicolae Ceausescu

Romania's longtime dictator, refused to step down, overthrown and executed

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