62 terms

Psych - Disorders

fear of going out to public places
anorexia nervosa
a condition involving intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and use of dangerous measures to lose weight
antisocial personality disorder
a condition marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms; the person (usually male) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
anxiety disorders
a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a psychological, developmental disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of the following three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
an extremely serious childhood disorder in which the child exhibits lack of responsiveness to other people, impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, and very limited activities and interests. Children with autism engage in repetitive behaviors.
availability heuristic
basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
binge-eating disorder
distress-inducing eating binges that are not accompanied by the purging, fasting, and excessive exercise seen in bulimia
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (formerly called manic-depressive disorder)
borderline personality disorder
a disorder in which the person (usually female) is emotionally unstable, impulsive,unpredictable, irritable, and prone to boredom. Persons with this disorder exhibit a repeated pattern of difficulty in maintaining relationships, stemming from the tendency to see people as either good or bad.
bulimia nervosa
habitually engaging in out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts, such as self-induced vomiting, fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics, and excessive exercise
catatonic schizophrenia
a condition marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
the coexistence of two or more disorders
concordance rate
indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
conjunction fallacy
occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone
conversion disorder
a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms (usually in a single organ system) for which no physiological basis can be found
culture-bound disorders
abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality
a disorder characterized by behavior that deviates from one's cultural norms
distinguishing one disease from another
Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
disorganized schizophrenia
a condition marked by a particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior
dissociative amnesia
sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
dissociative disorders
conditions that involve a splitting apart of significant aspects of a person's awareness, memory, or identity
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder involving the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities. Also referred to as multiple personality disorder
dissociative fugue
loss of memory for their entire lives along with the loss of personal identity
dysthymic disorder
a disorder consisting of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify a diagnosis of a major depressive episode
eating disorders
severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy efforts to control weight
the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
expressed emotion (EE)
the degree to which a relative of a patient displays highly critical or emotionally over-involved attitudes toward the patient
generalized anxiety disorder
a disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly; people with this disorder are continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input
a disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses; a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
a legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness
involuntary commitment
admitting and retaining a person in a psychiatric facility against his/her will
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which people show persistent feelings of worthlessness, sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
maladaptive behavior
a disorder in which everyday adaptive behavior is impaired
deliberately feigning of illness for personal gain
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
medical model
encourages the idea that abnormal behavior is a disease; the concept that psychological disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
mood disorders
a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes; see also major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder
narcissistic personality disorder
a condition characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, fantasies of unlimited success, need for excessive admiration, and a willingness to exploit others to achieve personal gain
negative symptoms
behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder marked by persistent, unwanted, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless, repetitive rituals (compulsions)
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
paranoid schizophrenia
a condition dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur
personal distress
a disorder characterized by subjective pain and suffering whether or not the person also exhibits deviant or maladaptive behavior
personality disorders
a class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning; characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
phobic disorder
a disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger and is normally considered harmless
positive symptoms
behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas
post-traumatic growth
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder that involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event; characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal; jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period
a forecast about the probable course of an illness
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thought, feelings, or behaviors
representative heuristic
basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
schizophrenic disorders
a class of severe disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior
somatization disorder
a disorder marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
somatoform disorders
physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors; the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause. See also conversion disorder and hypocondriasis
undifferentiated schizophrenia
a condition marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms