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Tactical Planning

Mid-level managers set incremental goals that can be achieved in a year or less. This process is referred to as ___ __

Knowledge Base

The facts and rules for an expert system are usually derived by interviewing one or more experts, and then incorporated into a ___ __

Commit or Rollback Strategy

OLTP uses a ___ ___ ___ ___ to ensure that each transaction is processed correctly


Every organization has a goal or plan that's referred to as its __

Structured Problem

An everyday, run-of-the-mill, routine problem is call
a ___ __

Operational planning

Low-level managers are responsible for scheduling employees, ordering supplies, and other activities that make day-to-day operations run smoothly. The process is referred to as ___ __

Expert System Shell

An ___ ___ ___ is a software tool containing an inference engine and a user interface that developers use to enter facts and rules for a knowledge base


___ determine organizational goals and plan how to achieve those goals


___ are the people in an organization who directly carry out the organization's mission


An ___ is a group of people working together to accomplish a goal

Exception Report

An ___ ___ contains information that is outside normal or acceptable ranges

OLTP System

A processing system that allows for a real-time in which each transaction is processed as it is entered is often referred to as an ___ ___

Decision Query

A ___ ___ is a question or set of instructions describing data that must be gathered to make a decision

Expert System

An ___ ___, sometimes referred to as a knowledge-based system, is a computer system designed to analyze data and produce a
recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on a set of facts and rules

Transaction Processing System

A ___ ___ ___ (TPS) provides a way to collect, process, store, display, modify, or cancel transactions

Inference Engine

The knowledge base is stored in a computer file and can be manipulatd by software called an ___ ___

Information System

An ___ ___ collects, stores, and processes data to provide useful, accurate, and timely information,
typically within the context of an organization

Enterprise Information System

A large business might require several information systems integrated into an ___ ___ ___ that
supports a variety of business activities


In an information system context, a ___ is an exchange between two parties that is recorded and
stored in a computer system

Unstructured Problem

An ___ ___ requires human intuition as the basis for finding a solution

Semi-Structured Problem

A ___ ___ is less routine than a structured problem

Strategic Planning

The emphasis on long-range and future goals is referred to as ___ ___

Neural Network

A ___ ___ uses computer circuitry to simulate the way a brain might process information, learn, and

Organizational Chart

An ___ ___ depicts the hierarchy of employees in an organization

Management Information System

___ ___ ___ refers to a type of information system that uses the data collected by a transaction processing system, and manipulates the data to create reports that manager can use to make routine business decisions in response to structured problems

Scheduled Reports

___ ___, such as monthly summaries, follow a fixed format and are produced according to a preset timetable

Ad Hoc Report

An ___ ___ ___ is a customized report, generated to supply specific information not available in scheduled reports

Nonprofit Organization

Organizations formed to accomplish politica, social, or charitable goals that do not include amassing
profit is known as a ___ ___

External Information

Other information systems store or provide access to ___ ___ generated by sources outside the

Executive Information System

A special type DSS, called an ___ ___ ___ (EIS), is designed to provide senior managers with information relevant to strategic management

Knowledge Engineering

The process of designing, entering, and testing the rules in an expert system is referred to as ___ ___

Internal Information

Some information systems collect and store ___ ___ generated by the organization itself

Batch Processing

Early transaction processing systems, such as banking and payroll applications, used ___ ___ to
collect and hold a group of transactions until the end of a day or pay period, when the entire batch is

Mission Statement

A ___ ___ describes not only an organization's goal, but also the way in which those goals will be

Online Processing

In contrast to batch processing, most modern transaction processing systems used ___ ___

Detail Reports

A typical transaction processing system generates ___ ___ which provide a basic record of
completed transactions

Decision Support System

A ___ ___ ___ (DSS) helps people make decisions by directly manipulating data, analyzing
data from external sources, generating statistical projections, and creating data models of various

Summary Report

A ___ ___ combines, groups, or totals data

Decision Model

A ___ ___ is a numerical reporesentation of a realistic situation


Any organization that seeks profit by providing goods and services is called a ___

Fuzzy Logic

Using a technique called ___ ___, an expert system can deal with imprecise data by asking for
a level of confidence.

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