Upgrade to remove ads
Immune and Endocrine
Terms in this set (40)
What type of exercise may be more likely to cause immunosuppression?
strenuous heavy exercise
True or false: Chronic aerobic training of moderate intensity and volume enhances immune function and reduces one's risk for infection.
Circulating catecholamines influence what during aerobic exercise?
cardiac contractility, blood pressure, and ventilation.
What hormones enhance vasoconstriction?
angiotensin II, aldosterone, AVP, and ADH enhances vasoconstriction in vascular beds of inactive tissue and helps regulate blood pressure and exercise hemodynamics.
Insulin levels _______ during exercise
Hormones involved in substrate mobilization include
insulin, epinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone.
Hormones involved with fluid and electrolyte balance during exercise are
ADH (secreted from the posterior pituitary gland) and aldosterone (secreted from the adrenal cortex). They help reabsorb water, retain sodium, and excrete potassium.
Anabolic agents that promote protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy.
testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1
The innate system provides
early defense against infection, provides information to the adaptive system, and responds to instructions from the adaptive system. The components of the innate immune system include the epithelial barrier, phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells), specialized lymphocytes (natural killer cells), and the complement system.
The adaptive immune system, which is comprised of:
the B and T lymphocytes, rids the body of foreign substances through humoral and cell-mediated responses.
Cell-mediated immunity is the process of
removing infection by activation of T cells, which remove infected cells or activate phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils) to remove the invading microbes.
What is leukocytosis?
The total number of circulating immune cells increases after an acute bout of aerobic exercise, and levels remain elevated up to 5 h postexercise.
leukocytosis after low-intensity exercise is attributable to the large increase in
neutrophil levels as T cells decrease.
What is the "open window"
T lymphocytes remain depressed for up to 24 h postexercise for intense exercise, which may put an individual at greater risk of attack from a pathogen.
-may be one reason why endurance athletes suffer high rates of respiratory infection after competition
The leukocytosis responses are caused by:
activation of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increases in plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels
What are the two main effects that promote the increase in WBCs?
-Increased cardiac output and sheer stress, causing cells to migrate from the vascular wall, pulmonary circulation, bone marrow, and spleen (17,41)
-Downregulation of adhesion molecules on the immune cells, which promotes deployment from the vascular wall into circulation
Aerobically fit individuals tend to have _____ resting levels of overall circulating leukocytes, as demonstrated by decreased monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes
True or false: Periods of excessive training and competition consistently have been shown to compromise immune function.
ADH secretion is stimulated first by increases in what two things?
plasma osmolality and second by reductions in plasma volume.
-Activation of osmotic receptors and baroreceptors stimulates the hypothalamus to sends neural impulses to the posterior pituitary to release ADH.
________ is the primary hormone involved in maintaining electrolyte balance.
aldosterone secretion is stimulated by
a reduced plasma volume, reductions in plasma sodium, and elevated plasma potassium concentrations.
sodium (and water) reabsorption in the kidneys as well as increased excretion of potassium from the kidneys.
reduced epinephrine secretion after aerobic exercise training favors glycogen _______ in the trained state.
aerobic exercise training results in a ________ in hormone secretion during submaximal exercise but _________ or _________ hormone secretion during maximal exercise in the trained state.
reduction; similar or elevated
The endocrine organs secrete their hormones directly into
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine - produced by the adrenal glands that sit on top of the kidney
Catecholamines released by:
sympathetic nervous system
Where do Catecholamines bind?
Alpha 1 and 2 receptors
Cause smooth muscle constriction
beta receptors cause
heart muscle contraction, smooth muscle relaxation (in lungs), glycogenolysis (liver)
Insulin is secreted by the
beta-cells of the pancreas
The major effect of insulin is to
stimulate glucose uptake into the cells. Only works on cells that have the insulin receptor (muscle, liver, adipose)
When is insulin secreted?
when blood glucose levels are high
-Glucose needs a transporter into the cell from the blood stream
-Insulin binding results in GLUT4 translocation
-GLUT4 is stores in the cell - insulin binds to receptor and causes a cascade (some proteins turn on, some turn off) - proteins are phosphorylated
Glucagon is secreted by the what? In response to?
alpha cells of the pancreas - in response to decreased blood glucose
Glucagon will act on the _______ to stimulate ________ and ______
Liver; glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown and glucose release into the blood) and glycogenolysis
- will also In-activate glycogen synthesis process as well
Insulin Like Growth Factor-1
Produced and secreted by
several different organs (adipose tissue and liver are major sites)
What kind of hormone is insulin like growth factor-1?
What will happen to catecholamine levels during exercise?
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Regulation of Metabolism During Exercise