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acts as a gateway for and barrier to movement of material between the interior of the cell and the extracellular fluid
first to emphasize careful observation and taking notes, and to start treating various diseases
"Father of Medicine"
first to begin doing controlled experiments to figure out how the body works
"Father of Physiology"
first to understand how blood moves through the body; first to say heart is like a pump
maintain relatively constant internal conditions even though external environment is changing
very short term changes; reversible; happen right after the external environment changes
long term changes in physiology; still reversible; occur days, weeks, or months after environment changes
alteration of gene frequencies over time; looks more at population rather than individual
changes that an animal undergoes that are programmed in and happen as the animal matures
changes controlled by periodic biological clocks
changes due to repeating patterns; daily or monthly changes due to some factor
the ability of a single genotype to generate more than one phenotype depending on the environmental conditions; possible because an individual possesses the genetic code to adopt multiple phenotypes
the ability of a single genome to produce two or more alternate morphologies within a single population in response to an environmental cue
the increase in frequency of genes that produce phenotypes that raise the liklihood that animals will survive and reproduce
the reason why a trait is an asset; the reason why natural selection favored the evolution of a trait
random changes in the frequency (number of occurrences within a given time period) of genotypes over time; occurs by chance
tightly bound to membrane; either embedded in the bilayer or spanning the entire membrane
weaker association with lipid bilayer; typically bind to integral membrane proteins or glycolipids
movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration; no specific transporters required; no energy required
uses a concentration gradient; no energy required; requires a protein to carry the molecule across the membrane
moves against the concentration gradient; requires energy; requires a protein to carry molecule across the membrane
Which types of transport use moving down a concentration gradient?
passive diffusion and facilitated diffusion
Which types of transport use a protein to carry molecules?
facilitated diffusion and active transport
long chains of monosaccharides used more as long term energy storage; aka complex carbs
Saturated fatty acids
no double bonds; solid at room temp. because they can pack together very closely
Unsaturated fatty acids
at least one double bond between carbon atoms; can't pack together as closely so usually liquid at room temp.
Tertiary protein structure
different regions begin to fold together; needs to be stabilized by different bonds
Quaternary protein structure
not required by all proteins; forms when different proteins/polypeptides come together
What is the difference in DNA and RNA?
DNA has thymine where RNA has uracil;
RNA has an extra oxygen
What cycle breaks down lipids?
fatty acids: convert to acetyl CoA and enter citric acid cycle
Direct cell signaling
physical connection between signal cell and target cell; good for cells that are close together
How do gap junctions help hydrophilic messengers?
Keep them from dissolving in extracellular fluid by getting them quickly from cell to cell
signal cell releases message (aka hormone); hormones enter circulatory system and can go a long way
cells have ducts; hormones excreted through some duct normally to outside of body surface
Which type of signal can be made ahead of time and stored? Why?
hydrophilic; because they can't cross the cell membrane (hydrophobic could leave whenever)
How is the hydrophilic signal released?
Through exocytosis from vesicle to membrane wall; enters circulation and dissolves; goes to site of target cell and leaves circulatory system to go to target cell
How is the hydrophobic signal released?
made when needed and freely exit the cell; enters circulatory system and most bind to a carrier protein; goes to site of target cell and unbinds then interacts with target cell
regulate sex specific characteristics and secondary characteristics and have a place in reproduction
important at muscular junctions where nervour system and muscular system work together
freely diffuse across cell membrane, very short lived, turn off or on certain enzymes
ligand mimic; can bind to receptor but does not activate a cellular response (block receptor so real messenger can't bind)
similar or same receptor among gene families that can bind same ligand but have different response
receptor acts as this because as soon as it binds it has a shape change and sends signal into cell
Examples of signal transduction pathways
Ligand-gated ion channels
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