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Robert Hooke

First to observe and name cells underneath the microscope. Observed a cork and saw plant cells.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

First to observe single celled organisms.

Matthias Schleiden

All plants are made of cells.

Theodor Schwann

All animals are made of cells.

Rudolf Virchow

Cells only formed from existing cells.

Cell Theory 3 ideas

All living things composed of cells, cells basic unit of structure and function in living things, all cells are produced from other cells

Cell membrane (3)

Outer boundary, protects, controls what enters and leaves

Cell wall (4)

Only in plant cells, protection and support, made of cellulose, allows water and dissolved substances to pass through

Nucleus (3)

Controls most activity, controls all genetic info in form of DNA, controls nuclear membrane which protects it

Chromatin (1)

Contain genetic material which hold instructions to direct cell

Nucleolus (1)

Where ribosomes are made

Cytoplasm (1)

Clear fluid

Endoplasmic Reticulum (3)

Series of folded membrane that form sacs or tubes, carry proteins and other materials to cell parts, rough has ribosomes

Ribosomes (3)

Makes proteins which are transported to golgi bodies, in cytoplasm or rough ER, all cells must produce protein

Golgi bodies (2)

Storing and packing of proteins and other chemicals, mailroom

Mitochondria (4)

Produce energy, powerhouse, many in muscles, sausage shape

Chloroplasts (3)

Only in plants, perform photosynthesis, contain chlorophyll pigment

Vacuoles (3)

Store food water or waste, plant cells have large ones that store water, some plants dont have them

Lysosomes (2)

created in golgi bodies and help with digestion

Bacterial cells (4)

very small, cell wall and membrane, no nucleus, have ribosomes


Tendency of molecules to move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration until equilibrium is reached.


Diffusion of water

Active Transport

Uses energy to move things in and out with transport proteins

hypertonic solution

higher concentration of solute, cell shrivels

hypotonic solution

lower concentration of solute, cell expands

isotonic solution

Equal amounts of solute

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