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Sociology Exam 2
Terms in this set (85)
A collect of at a from all cases or unites of analysis.
any relatively self-contained and self-sufficient group of human beings who are united by social relationships.
the sum total of human creations - intellectual, ethnical, artistic, physical, and moral.
Ideals - ultimate aims and the most general standards for assessing good and bad, desirable and undesirable.
Specific - rules governing behavior. Define what behavior is required, acceptable, or prohibited in particular circumstances.
a collection of norms associated with particular positions in a group or society
one society that may include several quite distinct cultures.
A culture within a culture - a distinctive set of beliefs, morals, customs developed or maintained by some set of persons within the larger society.
negative or hostile beliefs or attitudes about some socially identified set of persons.
actions taken against some socially defined set of people to deny members, collectively, rights and privileges enjoyed freely by others.
the process of exchanging on culture for another.
the situation where two groups find they are able to ignore some important cultural differences between them and emphasize common interests instead.
the processes of industrialization, economic development, and technological innovation by which a culture sustains high standards of living and maximizes control over the physical environment.
The development of global communications, a global economy, and a global culture.
The transfer of innovations
An economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and a system by which people compete to gain profits.
The Scientific Method
The use of observable data in order to formulate theories that explain and predict.
The systematic attempt to discover and explain behavior patterns of individuals and groups of people.
The study of human society and social interaction
Basic Assumption of Sociology
All human behavior is shaped by society and social circumstances.
- the nature of society and its effect on individuals.
-the process of social interaction
-To identify the causes of social phenomena
-To see each social setting as an intricate web of social forces interacting with each other.
functioning as a social science, individual social behavior is explained in terms of the structure of society.
Four Sociological Variables
Demographic, Status, Cultural, Contextual
Age, Race, Sex
Occupation, education, income, wealth
Language, religion, birthplace, political affiliation
Community, length of stay, environment, family
Common Social Problems
Crime, poverty, unemployment, discrimination, substance abuse, family abuse health: how can these be solved?
Durkheim's Study of Suicide
- Men are more likely
- Protestants have higher rates than catholics
- Single men are more likely than married men.
- People with higher income
Sacrifice: The group is more important than the individual.
- explains soldier suicide
Opposite of Altruistic: Individual left without support
-Explains suicide rate among single men, or childless parents (loneliness)
Normlessness: When the structure of society begins to collapse of reform itself.
-Correlation of divorce and suicide.
"the metaphysician;" mechanical and organic solidarity; statistical techniques; showed that human social behavior must be explained by social factors rather than psychological
Capitalism: the struggle between the bourgeoisie v. proletariat. False consciousness.
What's unique about modern life.
Rational, goal oriented action
Rational means, rational ends
Value Oriented Action
Rational means, non rational end
Emotional Effective Action
Motivation by emotion
What has Always been done
Rational Legal Authority
Assembly of government by law
Individual that identifies with populace
The ability to influence others in spite of their resistance.
George Herbert Mead
Mind, Self, and Society
Parts of Society functioning as a whole
Society is more composed of dysfunction and Conflict
focuses on how face-to-face interactions create the world; individuals act based on symbolic meanings attached to objects and people
The complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The learned and shared values and ways of behaving of members o a society.
A self-perpetuating group which shares a geographical territory and culture
Building Blocks of Culture
Beliefs, values, norms, sanctions.
What is true or real
What is good, better, or best
What is acceptable behavior. Customs, Folkways, Mores, and Laws.
Rewards and Punishment
Patterns of living- regular/habitual
Courteous treatment of other people- manners
Understanding of what is decent/civilized- "Taboos"
Legislated requirements for behavior
An idea of what is intrinsically desirable. Something we prize, esteem, feel to be of benefit. Something we believe to be right and proper for us and others to want.
Relationship of values to norms.
Values underly and determine norms. People can understand our values by what we do. Values are generally stated positively as broad and general principles, while norms can be positive or negative and more specific.
National independence. The right of a nation to practice self-government
Reasonable amount of material well-being with the absence of gross exploitation (social/economic well-being)
Absence of large-scale warfare: basic tranquility
The liberties of the individual, to live without coercion (Freedom with responsibility).
American Social Values
Liberty, Justice, Peace, Freedom
The notion that the standards and practices of other societies are to be evaluated in terms of they values and not ours.
The notion that no beliefs or actions are right or wrong in and of themselves.
Biblical Relativism/ Cultural Absolutism: Sometimes the situation makes an action that would normally be "sinful", right. (Jews in the cupboard).
Biblical and cultural relativism: No moral absolutes or sense of obligation and moral accountability.
Biblical Absolute/Cultural Relativism: Legalistic. Contextually legitimate but frozen in time.
Biblical and Cultural Absolutism
The process of putting the enforcement of viewpoints because one believes they are right.
Cultural Factors, Agents of Socialization, Methods of Socialization, Adult Personality.
Fund of common experiences, rules for child rearing
Agents of Socialization
Family, school, church, media, peers
Methods of Socialization
Instruction, Rewards/Punishment, Imitation
Learning of behaviors that will be appropriate to a status one may occupy later in life
Process where, in a change of social status, which requires that previously learned roles be unlearned and replaced by new ones.
The Learning of new patterns of behavior that run counter to previously acquired patterns.
Solve Social problems by granting additional powers to government. Humanitarian goals will be realized more efficiently and quickly through governmental power.
Individual liberty combined with a concern for moral absolutes and social order. Accepts humanitarian ends, but the choice of means to ends is elf-defeating and detrimental to those it is supposed to help.
Least amount of governmental control over citizens. Maximum individual freedom.
Advocate for the needs/interests of the common people. Call for more equitable distribution of wealth and power.
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