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primary muscles of inspiration during relaxed breathing

diaphragm, external intercostals


dome shaped muscle that divides thoracic and abdominal cavities

diaphragm during inspiration

contracts pulling floor of thoracic cavity inferiorly

diaphragm attachment

xiphoid process, lower 6 ribs, lumbar vertebrae creating central tendon

quiet inspiration

central tendon moves very little

forced inspiration

central tendon descends up to four inches

Major diaphragm apetures (openings)

venal cava foramen, esophageal hiatus, aortic hiatus

external intercostals location

most superficial layer - form V shape bilaterally between bottom of one rib to rib below

external intercostals function

elevate ribs during inspiration (bucket handle)

accessory muscles of inspiration

serratus anterior, pec major, pec minor, upper trap, levator scapulae, SCM, scalenes, rhomboids, serratus posterior superior, levator costarum

elevate muscles during forced inspiration

accessory muscles of inspiration

serratus posterior superior

A- C7 - T3 and ribs 2 - 5. In.- 2-5 intercostal nerves

internal intercostals

primary muscle of expiration

internal intercostals location

between ribs deep and oriented at a right angle to external intercostals, continuous with internal obliques

internal intercostals function

depress ribs during expiration

accessory muscles of expiration

rectus abdominus, external obliques, internal obliques, transversus thoracis, serratus posterior inferior, quadratus lumborum

can help with inspiration and expiration

latissimus dorsi

serratus posterior inferior

A- spinous processes T11 - L3, ribs 9-12, In- 9-12 intercostal nerves

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