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AB Chapter 4/5 review practice
Terms in this set (50)
The "X" shaped chromosomal hereditary material can be packaged in this organelle in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells. This organelle is the:
Many antibiotics kill bacteria because they hinder translation by prokaryotic _____.
The organelle that can collect, package, modify, and transport molecules is called the:
The semi-fluid matrix that surrounds organelles in a cell is called the:
Organelles that breakdown hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen are:
A dish of cells is treated with centrinone, a centriole inhibitor. These cells would no longer be able to ___.
Small cells function more effectively, because as cells become larger their surface area to volume ratio:
Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum
You have identified an enzyme that appears to be involved in the addition of palmityl group (a fatty acid) to certain proteins. Knowing that palmitoylated proteins are usually targeted for delivery to the plasma membrane, in which organelles might this enzyme be expressed?
Plants, fungi and bacterial all have:
Individuals that are heavy smokers may eventually have trouble clearing the mucous from their lungs because the structures that move fluid along the epithelial lining of the lung become damaged over time. What are these structures called?
Microfilaments such as actin, microtubules, and the intermediate filaments form the cell-supporting structure called the:
The evolutionary process that created chloroplasts and mitochondria is:
During which cellular process do all three forms of RNA associate?
Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (GSD II), also known as Pompe disease, is a metabolic disorder that leads to the accumulation of glycogen in muscles and neurons throughout the body. It is caused by a defect in an enzyme that is normally housed with other enzymes that are involved in breaking down large macromolecules. What organelle is most likely affected by this disease?
In eukaryotes, mitochondria are the organelles primarily involved in:
The eukaryotic organelle that is directly involved in the transport of proteins synthesized on the surface of the rough ER is called the:
protein and RNA
Ribosomes are made up of:
The organelle involved in the oxygen-requiring process by which the energy harvested from macromolecules is used to generate ATP is the:
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the other organelles besides the nucleus that contain:
Prokaryotic cell movement is attributed to:
The distinctive feature of chloroplasts is that they contain a green pigment called:
Plant cells often have a large membrane-bound sac that is used for storing water and other substances called a:
Eukaryotes have compartmentalization, which allows for specialization.
Prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells. What is a plausible explanation?
This cellular structure lacks a membrane:
Matthew noticed that his house plants were wilting badly. Which cell structure had most likely contracted?
The cytoplasmic space in eukaryotic cells is occupied by many diverse membrane-bound structures with specific cellular functions called:
The part of a membrane protein that extends through the phospholipid bilayer is primarily composed of amino acids that are
Osmosis can only occur if water travels through the
Three (3) eggs are boiled and all weigh 2g. The eggs are placed in a 15% solution of NaCl and reweighed after 30 minutes. The solution in the container is hypertonic to which egg?
egg 1= 2.5g
egg 2= 2 g
egg 3= 1.8g
The process often referred to as "cellular eating" is
In bacteria, fungi, and plants the high internal pressure generated by osmosis is counteracted by the mechanical strength of their
Three (3) eggs are boiled and all weigh 2g. The eggs are placed in a 15% solution of NaCl and reweighed after 30 minutes. Which egg is isotonic to the solution?
egg 1= 2.5g
egg 2= 2 g
egg 3= 1.8g
If two solutions have unequal concentrations of a solute, the solution with the lower concentration is called
active transport and endocytosis
If ATP production is blocked, decreased transport of material across a membrane occurs. Which type of transport is affected?
What is the main component of an animal cell membrane?
A research laboratory is attempting to collect the content of human red blood cells. The type of solution researchers should use to cause blood cells to lyse (burst) would be
The carrier molecule must be specific to the molecule that is transported. The direction of movement is always with the concentration gradient, never against the gradient.
Facilitated diffusion is an important method for cells in obtaining necessary molecules and removing other ones. Requirements for facilitated diffusion include
A type of transport of a solute across a membrane, up its concentration gradient, using protein carriers driven by the expenditure of chemical energy is known as
If a cell has the same concentration of dissolved molecules as its outside environment, the cell's condition is referred to as being
Which of the following protein classes are not found as membrane proteins?
move from areas of high concentration to areas of lesser concentration until an equilibrium is reached.
For the process of diffusion to occur, molecules must
Membrane proteins serve many functions. One of the functions is transportation of substances across the membrane. If a cell biologist placed cells into an environment in which a chemical has been added that blocks the function of only carrier proteins, the process that will be affected is
While water continually orients phospholipids into a lipid bilayer, it does not fix the lipids permanently into position. Thus, the bilayer is considered to be _______.
Three (3) eggs are boiled and all weigh 2g. The eggs are placed in a 15% solution of NaCl and reweighed after 30 minutes. When compared to the solution, the egg that gained weight was ______.
egg 1= 2.5g
egg 2= 2 g
egg 3= 1.8g
Osmosis occurs as water can cross the lipid bilayer through specialized channels for water movement called ________________.
water moves out of the cell
A scientist performs an experiment in which they create an artificial cell with a selectively permeable membrane through which only water can pass. They inject a 5M solution of glucose into the cell and then place the cell into a beaker containing 10M glucose. What effect do you expect to observe?
Which type of proteins is embedded in the cell membrane in both active transport and facilitated transport?
If you were a very thirsty cell, which process would you use to take in some nutrients secreted by one of your neighbors?
On the outer surface of the plasma membrane there are marker molecules that identify the cell type. Often these molecules are
Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane in response to the concentration of one or more of the ______.
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