51 terms

Reform Movements in American History

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National Energy Program
President Carter's "moral equivalent of war" that included reducing dependence on foreign oil and developing renewable resources. Created the Dep. of Enery(1977).
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA. Required drugs to meet the standards in the United States Pharmacopeia.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption. Response to Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"
Salk Vaccine
A vaccine consisting of inactivated polioviruses, used to immunize against a disease that cause the victim to become paralyzed. Developed by Dr. Jonas Salk. This dramatically reduced the number of cases of Polio.
1918 Influenza
Deadly pandemic that killed about 20-50 million people worldwide. Hit mostly young adults.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (1996)
A major reform of the welfare system during Clinton's presidency. It transferred responsibility for welfare to block grants to states through the Temp. Assistance for Needy Family program. Requirements for those receiving time-limited benefits key element of legislation.
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first coined by Theodore Roosevelt.
Ex: The Jungle(1906), The Shame of Cities(1914)
Clean Air Act
1970: EPA(Environmental Protection Agency) shifted the federal government role from advisory to enforcement and set national air quality standards for pollutants. They also examined polution issues and provided standards for major reductions in automobile emissions
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories during WWII. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part during.
American Birth Control League
Organization founded by Margaret Sanger 1921, which in 1942 changed its name to Planned Parenthood, that distributed birth-control information to doctors, social workers, women's clubs, and the scientific community, as well as to thousands of individual women. It also supported the sterilization of the "feeble-minded" and those with inherited diseases.
Settlement House Movement (early 1900s)
Established by middle-class reformers; were intended to help the largely immigrant poor cope with the harsh conditions of city life. Much of the inspiration for them came from young, college-trained, Protestant women from affluent backgrounds. These women rebelled against being relegated solely to the roles of wife and mother. For them, the settlement houses provided a way to assert their independence and apply their talents in socially useful ways.
Ex: Jane Addam's "Hull House" and the "Henry Street Settlemnet" in New York
National American Woman Suffrage Association
1890: the merge of American Woman Suffrage Association and the National Woman Suffrage Association under Carrie Chapman Catt. They supported WWI because they believed it would help them gain suffrage.
Seneca Falls Declaration
1848: Declaration marking the beginning of the women's rights movement. Drafted by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, they wanted the declaration to be expanded to: "all men and women are created equal"
National Women's Party
1916: A militant feminist group led by Alice Paul that argued the Nineteenth Amendment was not adequate enough to protect women's rights. They believed they needed a more constitutional amendment that would clearly provide legal protection of their rights and prohibit sex-based discrimination. They used tactics such as Hunger strikes, public demonstrations, and acts of civil disobedience. Contributed to the ERA and 19th Amendment.
Women's Rights Movement
an organized attempt to improve the political, legal, and economic status of women in the American society including the right to vote, property ownership, rights in general.
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
1911: Nearly 150 people, mostly young women lost their lives in this fire. It broke out in the Triangle Shirtwaist factory, a sweatshop in NYC. Hundreds of workers raced for exits, only to find them locked. As a result, new safety laws were created to help protect factory workers. Laws passed included fire drills, automatic sprinklers and no smoking rules.
Funamentalism
Came from a collection of essays published by conservative Christian theologians. It was based on the literal reading of the bible and rejected evolution. Supported instances such as the Monkey Trial.
Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor during the early 20th century.
Monkey Trial
1925: Trial about teaching evolution in schools. John Scopes was arrested for teaching his high school students Charles Darwin's theory on evolution. This went against traditional values. This caused a culture war between modernism and the fundamentalists. Scopes was found guilty by WJ Bryan.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Independent U.S. government agency established in 1958 for research and development of vehicles and activities for aeronautics and space exploration. Its goals include improving human understanding of the universe, the solar system, and Earth and establishing a permanent human presence in space. Helped promote science and math in education. Also known as NASA
Massachusetts School Law
1647: First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 families had to found a grammar school. It reflected Puritan concern with literacy for Bible readings.
Volstead Act
1919: Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment--Prohibition. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
18th Amendment
Ratified in 1919, it declared that the prohibition of "the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors" would take effect one year after radafication. It led to an increase in crime and violence(which it was supposed to reduce). Also known as the "The Noble Experiment"
21st Amendment
Ratified 1933, repeals 18th amendment ending Prohibiton
Temperance Movement
When people, usually women, tried to end the sale of alcohol. Many wives believed that alcohol was a threat to family because it could cause violence and economic issues. This Reform movement began in the 1800's that fought to ban alcohol in the U.S. This movement led to the passage of the 18th Amendment in 1920.
Voting Rights Act
1965, (LBJ) , 1965 act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans no matter what race or sex, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote.
Prohibited literacy tests; Voter registration among African Americans in the South increased majorly
Civil Rights Act (1964)
LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
Civil Rights Act (1968)
Signed by President Johnson to eliminate racial discrimination in housing situations, allowing people to live where they please, not where they are admitted
Civil Rights Act (1960)
It gave the Federal Courts the power to register Black voters and provided for voting referees who served wherever there was racial discrimination in voting, making sure Whites did not try to stop Blacks from voting.
Civil Rights Act (1957)
First significant civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. Was intended to protect the right of African American's to vote. The act brought the power of the federal government into the civil rights debate. The act created a civil rights division within the Department of Justice and gave it the authority to seek court injunctions against anyone interfering with the right to vote. Also created the US commission on Civil Rights to investigate allegations of denial of voting rights.
Fair Employment Practices Committee
1941"(FEPC) aimed at insuring morale and maximum use of labor force by preventing employer discrimination against workers because of race or religion. The efforts of this committee laid the foundation for the Civil Rights movement of the 1950's.
African American Religion
Slaves converted to Christianity during the 2nd Great Awakening when they attended church on plantations. Free blacks established independent black churches to seperate themselves from Slave owner's social control
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955-1956: A boycott of bus services in Montgomery, AL led by Martin Luther King, Jr. This was a reaction to Rosa Parks' arrest after refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger. Ended after about a year after the Supreme court ruled segregated buses were unconstitutional.
Freedom Riders
1961:, Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
Little Rock High School
Soldiers escort Black students to White school that refused integration
Harlem Renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
NAACP
1909:, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; worked for racial equality
Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacist group who wanted to keep America white. They hated Blacks, Catholics and Jews, and all other immigrants.
13th Amendment
Abolished Slavery in U.S.
1865
14th Amendment
Reversed the Dred Scott decision.
Prohibited states from denying individuals equal protection of the laws
1866
15th Amendment
Gave African Americans the right to vote
1870
Don't Ask, Don't tell Policy (1993)
Under Clinton administration. Concerns allowing gays into military but forbids begin openly homosexual.
Sonewall Riots
1969: Police raid in New York against a homosexual community. It made "gay pride" come alive.
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883: Ended spoil system and put federal employees in the merit system.
24th Amendmet
Prohibits the use of a poll tax allowing African Americans to vote.
Social Security Act
1935: Guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
GI Bill of Rights
Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business